The Shimla Agreement (1972)
1. The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved
that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation
that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion
of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable
peace in the sub-continent, so that both countries may henceforth devote
their resources and energies to the pressing task of advancing the welfare
of their people.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the
Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:
That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations
shall govern the relations between the two countries.
That the two countries are resolved to settle their deferences
by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other
peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final
settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither
side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent
the organisation, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental
to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations.
That the pre-requisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness
and durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries
to peaceful co-existence, respect for each others territorial
integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each others
internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedevilled
the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall
be resolved by peaceful means;
That they shall always respect each others national unity,
territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality;
That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, they
will refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial
integrity or political independence of each other.
2. Both Governments will take all steps within their power to prevent
hostile propaganda directed against each other. Both countries will
encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the
development of friendly relations between them.
In order to progressively to restore and normalise relations between
the two countries step by step, it was agreed that :
Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic,
sea, land including border, posts and air links including over-flights.
Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for
the nationals of the other country.
Trade and co-operation in economic and other agreed fields will
be resumed as far as possible.
Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countries will meet from
time to time to work out the necessary details.
4. In order to initiate the process of the establishment of durable
peace, both the Governments agree that :
Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of
the international border.
In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire
of December 17, 1971, shall be respected by both sides without prejudice
to the recognised position of either side. Neither side shall seek
to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and
legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from
the threat or the use of force in violation of this line.
The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this agreement
and shall be completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
5. This agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries
in accordance with their respective constitutional procedure and will
come into force with effect from the date on which the instruments of
ratification are exchanged.
6. Both Governments agree that their respective heads will meet again
at a mutually convenient time in the future and that in the meanwhile
the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the
modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and
normalisation of relations, including the questions of repatriation
of prisoners of war and civilian interness, a final settlement of Jammu
and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.
Republic of India
Simla, the 2nd July, 1972
(Zulfikar Ali Bhutto)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan