Major incidents of terrorist violence in Assam, 1990-2014
*Data till August 17, 20142013
January 17: At least six persons were killed when suspected NDFB-IKS militants pulled down about a dozen persons from a bus and opened fire at them at Serfanguri in Kokrajhar District. An Assam Police official said the bus was on its way from Siliguri in West Bengal to Shillong when a group of armed militants intercepted it on NH-31 at Athiabari under Serfanguri Police Station.
February 21: SFs killed three suspected GNLA militants at Kachumari under Krishnai Police Station, in Goalpara District. Three .9 mm pistols with 15 rounds of live ammunition and explosive materials weighing around one kilogram were reportedly recovered from the unidentified slain ultras.
March 11: Three militants of Meghalaya based outfit UALA were beaten to death by villagers at Majhipara village along the Assam-Meghalaya border in Goalpara District. Police said the three had recently served extortion notes to the people of the area. "The militants came to collect the extortion money. However, the locals caught them and beat them up leading to their death," Police said.
May 1-12: Heavily armed NDFB-IKS militants entered a house and shot dead three members of a family, including two women, and injured an infant of a minority community near Ananda Bazar area in Baksa District on May 1. This was followed by indiscriminate firing by the insurgents at Balapara-I village in neighbouring Kokrajhar District in the early hours on May 2 which left eight persons dead and injuring several others in their own houses. Again, in the night of May 2, 12 bullet-riddled bodies, including those of five women and a child, were recovered from Nankekhadrabari and Nayanguri villages in Baksa District where nearly 100 houses and a wooden bridge were set ablaze by the militants. Nine more bodies were recovered from a village in Baksa District in the morning of May 3 taking the toll to 32. On May 7, seven more bodies being recovered from near the Beki River in Baksa District. On May 8, official death toll in the carnage went up to 40 with the recovery of a boy's body from the Beki river in the Moinabari area in Baksa District May 9, Body of a female minor was recovered near Beki river in Baksa District taking the death toll to 41. On May 10, two more bodies of minors were recovered near Beki river in Baksa District taking the toll to 43. On May 11, two more bodies of minors were recovered near Beki river in Baksa District taking the toll to 45. On May 12, one more body was recovered in Baksa District taking the toll to 46.
May 14: Indian Army and Assam Police personnel killed six militants of KPLT including its 'commander-in-chief', Bikash Teron alias Kangthur at Langtibuk in Karbi Anglong District.
July 12: Body of all four traders who were abducted on July 11 from Labdanguri in Baksa District in BTAD were found on July 12 and 13. The body of a 14 year old individual identified as Bakar Ali was recovered on July 12 from Kamargaon in Barpeta District and body of other three persons, identified as Rabul Amin, Saddam Hussain and Atwar Ali were recovered on July 13 from Hakuanala on the banks of the Manas River in Baksa District.
August 1: Three ULFA-I died in an IED explosion at Mongre Gaon under Agia Police Station at Goalpara District. The incident took place when the militants took shelter at the house of an individual identified as Malaijeet Rabha with an IED device, when it suddenly exploded. Two ULFA-I militants have been identified as Kanteswar Rabhaalies Parama Asom and Akon Rabha. The other cadre, reportedly a linkman, is yet to be identified. Two pistols one grenade and some documents were recovered by the Police.
August 12 : Two individuals identified as Fosoi Gaur and Chintamoni Barhoi was killed in firing by miscreants from Nagaland at Chetia Gaon in Golaghat District.
August 13 : Armed Naga assailants continued their raids in Assam villages related to land issue for the second consecutive day killing a village headman, s Africa Toppo.
August 15: Nine more bodies were recovered from B Sector of Golaghat District along the Assam-Nagaland border on August 15 related to land dispute.
December 27: At least four persons, including three women, were Shot dead by suspected KPLT militants in Khowanigaon under Borpathar Police Station in Karbi Anglong District on December 27. The deceased villagers, meanwhile, have been identified as Logu Hembu, Noshengle Hembu, Rhenho Nandu and Kegwathong Kemp. Reports of three KPLT militants being gunned down during a cross-firing with the, rival Rengma Naga militant formation, NRHPF are also doing rounds, although their bodies are yet to be recovered.
November 24: Police in a gun battle killed three RNLF militants and a collaborator at Dudhnoi area in Goalpara District. Police also rescued the extension officer of the sericulture department, Dilip Dutta Medhi, posted at Resubelpara in North Garo Hills District, and was abducted from Chotomatia village by Rabha militants while he was travelling towards Dudhnoi (Goalpara) on November 16.
November 3-4: Seven people were killed and 10 others seriously injured when suspected GNLA militants fired on a group of people at Gendapara village under Agia Police Station in Goalpara District. The killed civilians were identified as Bholanath Rabha, Amarendra Rabha, Jayanta Rabha, Puran Rabha, Kalpanath Rabha and Lulu Rabha, who died on the spot. Another person reportedly succumbed to injuries on November 4.
April 19, 2013: An Inspector of a commando unit of Assam Police, identified as Lohit Sonowal, two hardcore militants of the ULFA-ATF and a civilian were killed in an encounter at Kordoiguri village in Tinsukia District. The militants killed in the encounter were identified as Raktajeet Hazarika and Ananta Moran. An official said residents of village, where the incident took place, identified the civilian as Pona Moran, who reportedly died in the crossfire. District SP, P.P. Singh said Hazarika was responsible for criminal activities in the Upper Assam Districts for the past few years. "He was also involved in the killing of surrendered ULFA (SULFA) militant, Tileswar Lahon, at Moran in Dibrugarh District in 2011," Singh said.
July 13: SFs killed three suspected militants of NDFB-RD at Salpara village in Goalpara District.
June 23: SFs killed four militants, including three DNRF and one NSCN-IM cadres, in an encounter at Milubra village in Dima Hasao District.
April 20: The 'general secretary' of the KPLT, Nilip Enghi and four other members of the outfit were killed on the spot and one got serious bullet injuries during an encounter with the Security Forces on the hill track of the Harlong Woti of Borpung under the Chowkihola Police Station in East Karbi Anglong District, Police source revealed. As per reports received, the body of Enghi has been identified by the operation team. The identities of the injured member and other slain militants have not been ascertained as yet.
February 8: SFs killed three UDLA militants at Debendra Basti on the Assam-Mizoram interstate border in Hailakandi District.2011
August 19: SFs on August 19 killed seven suspected UDLA militants and arrested one militant at Gutguti Pathargenai jungle under Ratabari Police Station in Karimganj District, bordering Mizoram.
August 6: SFs dug out bodies of three Khelma villagers, Pielsuomlal Khelma, Jemchunlien Khelma and Zeichunglien Khelma from Lunding Khelmabasti in Dima Hasao District. They were kidnapped and killed by a team of BW militants in 2007 after they refused to pay annual 'tax' to the militant group.
April 4: At least three Sashasthra Seema Bal personnel were killed in an ambush by NDFB militants in Kokrajhar District.
April 2: Karbi People's Liberation Tigers (KPLT) militants killed three Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel and injured four others in an ambush near Rongshuli village in east Guwahati. Three slain personnel were identified as Havaldar Devendra Shah, Mithu Singh and a constable Dilip Kumar.
March 15: One Assam Police sub-inspector identified as Pranjal Saikia and two suspected ULFA militants were killed during an encounter at Tongona Majgaon under Kakopathar Police Station of Tinsukia District. The identity of only one ULFA militant was ascertained as Ilu Mahanta. An AK-56 rifle along with 19 live rounds, one 7.65 mm pistol along with three live rounds, a large quantity of empty cartridges, two detonators, two mobile phones were recovered from them.
March 14: Eight BSF Personnel were killed and five others injured when their vehicle was ambushed by the Anti-talk faction of the NDFB-ATF militants in Kokrajhar District in Assam.
February 19: Three suspected militants of NDFB-ATF were killed in an encounter in Bordol reserve forest under Lakhipur Police Station in Goalpara District. One trooper, whose name the Army refused to disclose, sustained bullet injuries.
February 15, 2011: DNDF 'Commander-in-Chief', Bihari Dimasa, along with two other militants of the group were killed in an encounter with the security forces in Dima Hasao District.
January 1: Two militants belonging to the Pro-Talks Faction of the NDFB and a civilian were shot dead by unidentified militants in village Mukuldang of Kokrajhar District. Three other locals were injured in the attack. The NDFB-PTF accused the BLT of carrying out the attack.
November 8: At least 19 persons, including 13 Hindi-speaking people, were killed and several others injured when militants of the anti-talks faction of the (NDFB), led by Ranjan Daimary went on a killing spree in four places in Northern-Assam.
October 3: The Police shot dead four NDFB cadres during an encounter at a thickly forested area at Dekatan in Dhemaji District and rescued an abducted trader, Cotton Nandy.
July 30: July 30: At least five CRPF troopers were killed and 33 others injured, when the ULFA triggered an IED blast by damaging a bus at Bhalukdubi under Goalpara District. Anu Buragohain, who introduced himself as the 'spokesperson' of ULFA, called up a local television channel claiming that the blast was carried out by the outfit. He said though ULFA had 'remained quiet' for some time, Security Forces continued to target its cadres and that is why it had retaliated. He warned of more such strikes. Intelligence sources, however, did not rule out the possibility of the anti-talks faction of the NDFB militants executing the blast at the behest of ULFA. "The precision of the execution certainly points to such a possibility," a source said.
July 26: Four Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) personnel, including an assistant commander, were killed and three others injured in an ambush by the Ranjan Daimary faction of the NDFB at Amlaiguri under Panbari Police Station in Chirang District along Bhutan border. A Police spokesperson said militants of the NDFB attacked a vehicle of the SSB's 15th Battalion. "The NDFB militants later decamped with two rifles and two pistols from the dead troopers," Inspector General of Police Bhaskar Jyoti Mahanta said.
March 1: Four suspected militants of Bengali Tiger Force (BTF) were shot dead in an encounter with SFs at Chereng Chapori in Darrang District.
February 10: Three militants belonging to anti-talks faction of the NDFB were shot dead by SFs during an encounter at Jaulia Centre near Jingabeel under Majbat Police Station in Udalguri District.
February 2: Two suspected ULFA cadres were shot dead by troops of 65 Field Regiment of Red Horns Division during an encounter at Dakkhin Bhokelikanda under Kalaigaon Police Station in Udalguri District. A six year old boy was killed in crossfire of the encounter. A trooper was also injured in the encounter.
January 19: Three militants of the anti-talks faction of NDFB were shot dead by SFs in two separate incidents of Kokrajhar District. Four militants, including three women, were also arrested by the SFs from the incident site.
January 4: Unidentified militants opened fire on a Police convoy, killing a Constable and injuring two others, including a Sub-Inspector, near Impui Basti on the Haflong-Mahur road in the North Cachar Hills District. Two siblings, one of them a 10-year-old girl, also die in the ambush after they are caught in the cross-fire as the Security Forces (SFs) retaliate after the gunmen, hiding in the foliage on both sides of the road, open fire on the two-vehicle Assam Police convoy.
January 2: Unidentified militants shot dead three persons, including two pro-talks NDFB cadres, identified as Jwngsar Brahma alias B. Jwhwlao (28) and Losen Brahma (27) of Serfanguri designated camp, and one college student, Bilifang Basumatary (20), at Mukuldang under Gossaigaon Police Station in Kokrajhar District. A truck driver and two other students were also injured in the gun attack.
November 22: Suspected ULFA militants triggered two powerful bomb blasts barely 50 meters from the Sadar Police Station in Nalbari town, which killed eight people and injured 53 others at around 10 AM in the morning. The IEDs, planted on two bicycles, were kept in front of a tea stall and a saloon which were blown up. The deceased were identified as Paban Thakur, the owner of a nearby saloon, Sikandar Thakur, an employee of the saloon, Dipu Das, a driver, Ganesh Das, a businessman, Keshab Das, an employee of an insurance company and Mahabat Ali, a gaonburah (village head man) of Nalbari town. The Superintendent of Police of Nalbari District, Jitmal Doley, said that ULFA militants are suspected to be behind the blasts, which were meant to make its presence felt by creating panic among innocent people.
October 4: At least 11 persons were killed in a attack carried out by suspected militants belonging to the anti-talks faction of the NDFB at Balichand area under Biswanath Chariali Police Station in Sonitpur District. At least ten others were injured in the attack. According to Police sources, a group of 10-12 heavily armed militants entered Bhimajuli village, inhabited mostly by the Nepali and Tea-tribe community, called out villagers from their houses, and opened fire on them. On their way back, the same group opened also fire at two other places. Police sources said that attempts at extortion might be the reason for the attack.
October 3: Three ULFA militants were shot dead by troops during an encounter near Kendubari village in the Nalbari District. "Based on specific intelligence about the presence of three ULFA militants in the area, an army column laid an ambush and there was a firefight in which the militants were shot dead," an Army official said. A carbine, pistols, grenades, detonators and gelatine sticks were recovered from the possession of the slain militants. "Probably the militants were planning to strike during the Durga Puja festival and hence carrying explosives," the official added.
August 16: Two Army personnel and a NDFB militant were killed in an encounter at Garugaon on the Assam-Arunachal Pradesh border area under Dhekiajuli Police Station of Sonitpur District at about 4.45am (IST). Official sources said the Army personnel were conducting a search operation in the Garugaon area after getting intelligence inputs about the movement of militants. During the search operation, the Army came across a four-member group of the Ranjan Daimary faction of the NDFB and were engaged in an encounter with militants lasting for about an hour. Subsequently, dead bodies of two Army personnel and a NDFB militant were recovered. The slain NDFB militant was identified as B. Thungree. Meanwhile, three other militants managed to escape from the spot taking the advantage of darkness.
July 20: SF personnel shot dead three militants of the NSCN-IM at Harmoti village near Nijlaluk in North Lakhimpur District, bordering Arunachal Pradesh. The slain militants were identified as 'sergeant' Nameng Kobin, 'sergeant' Babang Bake and Bhai. Three 9-mm pistols, ammunition and SIM cards were also recovered from their possession. "These militants were operating from Arunachal Pradesh and frequently entering Assam on specific operations like recruitment of cadres and sabotage activities," Lakhimpur Superintendent of Police S.A. Karim said, adding that there were reports of the militants trying to carry out attacks in Assam prior to the Independence Day on August 15.
July 1: Unidentified militants shot dead four children and a 25 year-old woman at Semkhor village under Maibong Police Station in the North Cachar Hills District. Three others were injured in the incident. A Police source said that all the victims were from the Dimasa tribe. The deceased were identified as Karong Thonglo, Lambo Langthasa, Warsi Thonglo, Depola Langthasa, and Senring Langthasa. With these killings, the death toll in the continuing ethnic strife in the North Cachar Hills District has gone up to 55 since March 19.
Five unidentified militants were shot dead in an encounter between the SF personnel and a group of militants at Dehikata Reserve Forest under Mornai Police Station in Goalpara District. A revolver, two 7.65 pistols, a 9-mm pistol, a 12 bore gun (all factory made), a factory made hand grenade, 19 rounds of live ammunition and eight rounds of empty cases were recovered from the possession of the slain militants.
June 30: NDFB militants shot dead four persons of a family at Naharani Grant village under Rangapara Police Station of Sonitpur District in the night. The OIC of Rangapara Police Station, Tapas Chakrabarty, said that four motorcycle-borne NDFB militants with AK series rifles entered the house of Munna Pal at about 11.30 pm (IST) and indiscriminately fired on the family. The deceased persons were identified as Munna Pal (30), his wife Subhapati Pal (35), younger brother Tunna Pal (30) and his three-year old son Pankaj Pal. Munna Pal, a milkman by profession, was living in the area for the last many years.
June 22: Five NDFB militants were shot dead and huge cache of arms and ammunition were recovered in two separate incidents in Assam. Three NDFB militants, including a self-styled 'area commander' B John Wan, were killed in an encounter with SFs at Majbat in Udalguri District. A 9 mm pistol along with several rounds of ammunition and some documents were recovered from the slain militants. In another incident, two NDFB militants were killed in an encounter with Police and Army in the same evening at Dhekiajuli in Sonitpur District. Two pistols, two bicycles and several documents were recovered from the possession of the slain militants.
June 17: A joint team of Police and Army shot dead three NDFB militants during an encounter at Auguri village under Gogamukh Police Station of Dhemaji District. One of the militants was identified as Manu Basumatary (25) of Abhaypur village. The militants were taking shelter in the residence of one Niranjan Swargiary of Auguri village. One AK-56 rifle with 50 bullets, one 7.62 pistol, one loaded 9 mm pistol, one mobile phone and a money receipt book were recovered from their possession.
June 16: Suspected BW militants shot dead 12 persons and set ablaze 20 houses in an attack at Michidui village under Haflong Police Station of North Cachar Hills District. Police sources said a group of armed militants attacked Michidui and opened indiscriminate fire killing 12 persons, including eight minors, on the spot. Two other persons were also injured in the attack. Police said the village, inhabited by Zeme Naga people, was abandoned following the recent incidents of ethnic clashes and the villagers had taken shelter near a camp of the Assam Rifles camp located around three kilometers away. But recently, the villagers had started going back to the village during day time for cultivation and the militants reportedly took advantage of the situation to attack them.
June 4: Four NDFB militants were shot dead by the Security Force personnel during encounters in the Sonitpur and Udalguri Districts. While two militants were killed by the Army at Khanamukh in Sonitpur District, two others were killed and arms recovered during another encounter at Jingebil in Udalguri District.
June 3: Suspected BW militants shot dead five persons, including two children, and set ablaze 54 houses when they attacked Borchenam Basti, a Zeme Naga inhabited village under Haflong Police Station in the North Cachar Hills District. Police sources informed that BW militants entered the village at around 5am (IST) killing two minor girls, two old women and one teen-aged boy in the attack. Another child was seriously injured, the report added.
Three militants, including a senior ULFA militant identified as Madhurjya Gogoi, were killed in an encounter with the Army at Chayabhata village in Karbi Anglong District around 1.30pm (IST). Gogoi was a self-styled 'lieutenant' of the banned outfit. Of the other two militants, one was Gogoi's bodyguard while another was a KLNLF cadre. An AK-series rifle, two 9mm pistols, a Chinese grenade, ammunition and cash-receipt book were recovered from the encounter site.
May 19: 14 persons, including six NDFB militants, were killed in two separate incidents in the Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills Districts. SFs shot dead six NDFB militants in a jungle under Dokmoka outpost of Howraghat Police Station in the Karbi Anglong District in the early morning, which put the death toll in both the incidents at 10. Police sources said the militants taking shelter in a transit camp inside a deep jungle near Donghaf opened fire as the SFs advanced towards the militant camp. The exchange of fire continued for more than three hours during which two militants managed to escape while the other six died on the spot. However, none of the slain militants were identified. Three 9-mm pistols, two 9-mm revolvers, two grenades and a hand-made carbine, a magazine, 23 live rounds of ammunition, 12 gelatine sticks, 150 metre fuse wire and 143 detonators were recovered from the encounter site.
10 unidentified militants shot dead four Dimasa tribals at Interim Bungalow, a secluded place on the highway about seven kilometres from Mahur town in North Cachar Hills District. Police sources said unidentified militants stalled the passenger jeep at Interim Bungalow and asked all the 14 passengers to get down from the jeep, lined them up and asked them to reveal their ethnic and racial identities. The militants then segregated four Dimasa tribals from the group and opened fire on them.
May 11: Unidentified militants shot dead at least three persons, abducted another and set ablaze over 90 houses belonging to the Zemi Naga tribe at Gailung village in North Cachar Hills District. Police sources said militants attacked the village under Maibang Police Station with automatic weapons, killing at least three persons. An official source added that suspected militants attacked the Hindu Basti and Christain Basti at remote Guilung village and Jalwa village and set ablaze 90 houses. President of the Indigenous People’s Forum, Josiaf Zemi, alleged lack of security in the area and stated that if such attacks continued, the tribal people would not be able to till their fields this season and that would lead to starvation later in the year.
May 9: Three villagers were shot dead in an attack by unidentified militants in an interior village, 40 kilometres from Haflong in the North Cachar Hills District.
April 29: Violence between the Zeliangrong community and Cacharis in North Cachar Hills District continued for the second day which had claimed 10 lives and 16 others sustained injuries. The clashes between the two communities of Zeme sub-tribe of Zeliangrong and the Cacharis (Dimasas) started after suspected BW militants killed nine persons of the Zemes sub-tribe of the Zeliangrong community on April 28. Later, suspected Zeliangrong militants retaliated and attacked a Dimasa village. The sources said that the Zeliangrong Chabuan have set ablaze 25 houses of Yekulua village between Boreneu and Guilong of Haflong in North Cachar Hills District. Before setting ablaze the 25 houses, the two communities exchanged gunfire and 10 Dimasas were killed and 16 others wounded. Meanwhile, Telegraph quoting Police sources said there the role of a third player, most probably of the NSCN-IM, was also being suspected.
April 28: Three women were killed and more than seven villagers were injured when a group of unidentified militants, numbering 15 to 20, opened indiscriminate fire on a Dimasa village, Yeah, under Maibang Police Station in North Cachar Hills District.
April 20: The BW militants shot dead six persons, including five SF personnel, in an ambush on the convoy of a private cement company's vehicles in the North Cachar Hills District. The militants ambushed the 20-truck convoy of Vinay Cement Company at Panimur Kalanala under Doyangmukh Police station, near the industrial town of Umrangsu and 170 kilometres from the Haflong, the District headquarters of North Cachar Hills District.
April 20: The Army killed five militants, including an accused in the Dhekiajuli blast of April 15, during an encounter at Aka Basti in the Sonitpur District. Out of the five militants, Prabhat Basumatary, Krishna Basumatary and Deithang Basumatary belonged to the NDFB while Babul Ali and Yunis Ali were of the MULTA. Defence spokesman Colonel Rajesh Kalia said the militants were planning to abduct a businessman, Paras Gurung, of Lokhra area in the same district. The army said Prabhat Basumatary was a known operative of Pakistan's ISI and a key perpetrator in the bomb blast at Dhekiajuli. The army recovered five 9-mm pistols, a Chinese hand grenade, five kilograms of explosives, 10 detonators and 107 rounds of AK-47 ammunition from the encounter site.
April 6: Seven people were killed and 56 injured in a powerful blast in a crowded market in Guwahati’s Maligaon area at around 2 pm (IST). The explosion sparked a fire that set ablaze two cars and 20 motorcycles and spread to a three-storey building housing the area police station. While six people were killed at the blast site, one died of injuries after jumping from an adjacent building which had caught fire. The bomb is suspected to have been hidden in a car or a motorcycle parked adjacent to the North-East Frontier Railway headquarters. "This is the handiwork of ULFA boys ahead of the outfit’s Raising Day" said Director General of Police G M Srivastava.
January 29: Two Police personnel and an ULFA militant were killed in an encounter in the Sivasagar District. According to Police sources, the encounter took place at Bengenabari area under Sonari Police station when a joint patrol party of the Police and Army was attacked by the ULFA militants. Assistant Sub-Inspector Bhim Prasad Upadhaya and Constable Debojit Borgohain were killed on the spot, while the slain ULFA militant is yet to be identified.
January 1: The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) militants triggered serial bomb blasts in three different areas of Guwahati city, killing five persons, including a minor, and injuring 50 others. The first explosion took place around 2:25 PM (IST) in Birubari followed by high-intensity explosions in the Bhootnath area (5:25PM) and Bhangagarh area (5:40PM). The blasts were triggered hours before the scheduled arrival of Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram. "From prima facie evidences collected from the spot, it appears to be the handiwork of suspected ULFA militants," said Additional Superintendent of Police of Guwahati City, Debojit Deori. "The Birubari bomb, which was planted in a GMC dustbin near the Assam Association of Deaf office, was a low-intensity one. However, the subsequent blasts were aimed to cause maximum damage as they were planted in crowded areas," added Deori. Another unnamed Police official claimed that the bomb in the Bhootnath area was planted in a bicycle.
December 1: At least three persons, including a child, were killed and 30 others injured in a bomb blast suspected to have been triggered by the KLNLF in a passenger train at Diphu railway station in the Karbi Anglong District.
November 3: Three civilians belonging to non-Assamese community were killed by the KLNLF militants at Bamuni Sukanjuri village under Samaguri Police station in the Nagaon District.
October 30: 87 persons were killed and about 200 injured in nine near-simultaneous blasts in Assam’s capital Dispur and adjoining city Guwahati and three other Districts - Kokrajhar, Barpeta, and Bongaigaon. The first of the explosions was triggered at around 11.30 am near the Ganeshguri flyover near the high-security capital complex housing the Assembly building in capital Dispur, followed by explosions at Paltan Bazar and Fancy Bazar in Guwahati city within five minutes. Around the same time, bombs also exploded in crowded market places of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon and Barpeta Districts of the lower Assam. At least 51 persons were killed in three blasts in Guwahati. While at least 21 persons were killed in three serial blasts in Kokrajhar, 15 persons were killed in twin blasts in Barpeta Road town of Barpeta District. 10 persons were injured in the Bongaigaon blast.
October 30: BW militants killed at least seven Police personnel at Langlai near Thujuari of North Cachar Hills District. Three militants were also killed in the retaliatory firing. Haflong Police sources said that the BW militants opened fire on the Police party who were carrying the body of a DHD leader, Naklai Dimasa, who was killed by the BW militants on October 29 from Haflong Civil Hospital to Diyongmukh after the post mortem.
October 25: Five ULFA militants and a soldier were killed during an encounter between a joint team of the Army and CRPF personnel and militants at Mahina village in the Nalbari District. The slain militants, including one identified as Corporal Sanjit Sarania, belonged to the ‘709th battalion’ of the ULFA. One kilogram of RDX, four pistols, two grenades, one radio set, 29 rounds of live ammunition, one K.G. of urea, two IEDs, nine detonators, five magazines of SLR and fuse wires were recovered from the encounter site.
September 30: The dead bodies of four youths were recovered from a mass grave in the reserve forest at Kakopathar in the Tinsukia District, where makeshift camps of the ‘28th battalion’ of the ULFA were located a few months ago. The mass grave was suspected to be the dumping ground of dead bodies of those who had been abducted and later killed by the ULFA militants.
September 26: Seven suspected HuJI militants were killed in an encounter with the Army at Bashbari under Rupshi development block in the Dhubri District. Six revolvers, three grenades, two gelatin sticks, six detonators, about two kilograms of explosives, some Bangladeshi currency notes, a Bangladeshi mobile SIM card and addresses of some hotels in Bangladeshi were recovered from the slain militants’ possession.
September 10: Unidentified militants opened indiscriminate fire in the market place at Bogajuli Belaisribazar in the Baksa District killing three civilians, identified as Suresh Basumatary, Sabu Basumatary and Dominique Basumatary.
July 23: Three cadres of the ULFA’s ‘709 battalion’ were killed in an encounter with Army and police at Namati village under Ghograpar police station in the Nalbari district.
June 29: Seven persons were killed and 35 others, including two policemen, were injured in an explosion at a weekly crowded marketplace in the Kumarikata village of Nalbari district.
June 15: Four hardcore ULFA cadres of the 28th battalion were shot dead by the Army in an operation at Kanubari village of Charaideo subdivision of Sibsagar district. The slain militants have been identified as Badal Khargoria, Annie Bauri, Sumit Gohain and Ajit Gogoi.
June 10: Three ULFA militants were shot dead in an encounter with the security forces at Borbam village under Tengakhat Police Station in the Dibrugarh district.
May 11: A group of around 10 armed BW militants shot dead eight labourers engaged in the construction of a railway quarters at Thoibasti in the North Cachar Hills district.
May 10: 12 Black Widow militants were killed and 18 others injured in a gun battle with the security forces in the North Cachar Hills district.
March 13: Four persons were killed and nine others injured in a police firing on an irate mob which was protesting against the dismantling of a NDFB camp at Bengtol in the Chirang district.
March 9: Four Hindi-speaking people were shot dead by the ULFA militants near a brick kiln at Udalguri tea estate between Chabua and Tengakhat in the Dibrugarh district.
February 22: Three KLNLF militants were shot dead by the security forces in an operation in the Kamalabhati village under Howraghat Police Station in the Karbi Anglong district. Two AK-56 rifles, four single barrel guns, 177 rounds of ammunition of assorted weapons were recovered at the site of the encounter.
February 19: Five employees of a private cement factory, Vinay Cements, were killed while another was injured in an attack by the Black Widow militants at about four kilometres from Umrangshu in the North Cachar Hills district.
February 16: Four ULFA militants were killed in a joint operation by the Army and police in the Sibsagar district.
February 11: Four persons, including an Assam Police Battalion soldier, were killed and two more injured when Black Widow militants ambushed a convoy of the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd officials 20-km from Umrangsu in the North Cachar Hills district.
Three Islamist militants with suspected links to the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Pakistan’s external intelligence agency, were killed in an encounter with security forces at Binajuli village under Agia police outpost in the Goalpara district.
January 14: Two security force personnel and three civilians were killed by Black Widow militants near Umrangsu town in the North Cachar Hills district.
December 31: Three ULFA militants were killed by security forces in the Dibru Saikhowa National Park located across Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts.
December 14: At least four labourers were shot dead by suspected BW militants at the Longpo area under Umrangshu police station in the North Cachar Hills district.
December 13: Five people were killed and four others injured in a bomb blast carried out by suspected ANLA militants in a Delhi-bound Rajdhani Express train in Golaghat district. The explosion, which occurred between Naujan and Sugajan, destroyed the luggage van of the train and a small portion of the railway track as well.
November 27: Suspected BW militants shot dead 10 unidentified saw mill workers and injured eight others in two separate attacks at Bithorgaon under Umrangsho police station in the North Cachar Hills district. The militants set ablaze two saw mills and attacked the migrant labourers working there.
November 2: Seven CRPF personnel were killed in an ambush carried out by the BW militants at Theijuri in the North Cachar Hills district. The militants also took away arms and ammunition of the killed CRPF personnel and escaped.
September 30: Four persons are killed and 21 others wounded in another blast triggered by the ULFA at Tinsukia town.
August 12: Suspected KLNLF militants shot dead four civilians, Mahabir Swami, Nandalal Swami, Sila Gupta and Mohan Kanu, at Rongbonghat village under Bokajan police station in the Karbi Anglong district. Two other civilians, Kanhaiyala Swami and Ramesh Swami, sustained injuries in the attack.
August 10: A group of 10-15 suspected ULFA and KLNLF militants attacked a village at Dolamara in the Karbi Anglong district and shot dead 11 Hindi-speaking migrant workers. The dead include four women and two children belonging to two families originally hailing from the State of Bihar.
August 8: Nine civilians, including four women and three children, were killed and five others injured when a group of ULFA and KLNLF militants opened indiscriminate fire targeting the Hindi-speaking people at Ampahar Basti village under Howraghat police station in the Karbi Anglong district.
August 7: Suspected BW militants shot dead four civilians, Ashok Das, Santosh Mahato, Manna Dey and Bidhu Das, at Harinagar market under Joypur police station in the Dibrugarh district.
Three civilians, Ajit Bora, Debo Bora and Pranjal Gogoi, were killed and eight others injured when ULFA militants triggered an explosion in front of the Jorhat police station in the Jorhat district.
July 24: Three unidentified members of the BW group were killed in an internecine clash between rival groups of the DHD - Black Widow and the Nunisa faction, near a designated camp at Pathergaon under Diphu town in the Karbi Anglong district.
July 20: Five civilians, including a four-year-old child, are killed and 18 others injured when suspected ULFA and KLO militants triggered a powerful bomb at Srirampur Chariali under Tamarhat police station in the Kokrajhar district.
July 5: Three civilians, Sarabat Ali, Min Bahadur Chetri and Kamal Bahadur Chetri, were killed when hundreds of armed Naga people, reportedly backed by the NSCN (IM), attacked three villages - Sonapur, Borholla and Dhekiajuli - on the Assam-Nagaland border in Sivasagar district.
June 30: Four persons were killed and at least 40 others injured in four bomb blasts – three in Tinsukia district and one in Karbi Anglong district. Three persons were killed in two successive bomb blasts at a fish market and a textile market in the Tinsukia town.
June 23: Six persons, including three children, are killed and 14 others injured when suspected ULFA militants triggered an explosion in front of a mosque at Machkhowa in the Guwahati city.
June 3: Four police personnel are killed and two others sustained injuries when KLNLF militants ambushed a police patrolling party at Koilajan area under Bokajan police station in the Karbi Anglong district.
May 26: Seven persons are killed and 18 others injured in an explosion triggered by suspected ULFA militants in the Athgaon area of Guwahati city.
May 16: ULFA militants kill three civilians, Tankeswar Sahu, Dipak Agarwal and Srinath Agarwal, in the Golaghat district.
May 15: The ULFA militants shot dead six unidentified Hindi-speaking people in various areas of the Dibrugarh and Sivsagar districts.
May 3: Three ULFA militants are killed in an encounter with the Army personnel at Barkhajan village in the Nalbari District. Two of the them were identified as the ‘second lieutenant 709th battalion’ Chanakya Barman alias Khaplang and Pranab Kalita alias Jogesh Kalita alias Bastab.
April 23: SFs killed three ULFA cadres, identified as Udhav Deka alias Sanjeeb Kalita, Parameswar Deka alias Mrigen Dutta and Ganesh Kalita alias Goutam Sarma, at Adingagiri Kalishola hillock along the Assam-Meghalaya border. They recovered one M-20 pistol, a grenade, five live cartridges, 500 grams of explosives, plastic jars and some incriminating documents from the incident site.
April 2: In a counter-insurgency operation, security forces killed four ULFA cadres in the Udalguri district.
January 27: Two ULFA militants and a Captain of the Gorkha Regiment of the Indian Army were killed in an encounter at Borpathar Rongagora under Doomdooma Police Station in the Tinsukia District.
January 7: Seven persons belonging to Bihar are killed and three others sustain injuries when ULFA militants called them out of their homes at Borali Bari near Mahmara in the Sibsagar district and opened fire.
Assam Police said that six Hindi-speaking persons were shot dead and one injured in an attack by the ULFA at Chokolia near Dimow in the Dibrugarh district
January 6: KLNLF militants kill eight polling personnel and injure eight others during elections to the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council. Militants exploded an improvised explosive device and fired on polling personnel when they were returning after the close of voting.
January 5: In nine near-simultaneous raids, ULFA militants killed a total of 48 persons, 34 people in Tinsukia, which has a sizeable Bihari population, eight in two separate incidents in Dibrugarh district and six in neighbouring Dhemaji. Tinsukia bore the brunt with six incidents, the biggest at Sadiya where 13 people were shot. Of the 48 victims, seven were teenagers.
November 5: At least 14 persons are killed and more than 52 others sustain injuries in two separate bomb blasts triggered by suspected ULFA militants at Fancy Bazaar and Noonmati area in Guwahati.
November 3: Three ULFA militants are killed by SF personnel in a counter-insurgency operation at Kardoiguri under Moran police station in the Dibrugarh district. A huge cache of arms and explosives is recovered from the encounter site.
October27: At least three civilians are killed and 22 persons, including one woman, a child and two Central Reserve Police Force personnel, sustain injuries when an improvised explosive device planted on a bi-cycle parked in front of Paramount Restaurant is triggered at Dhekiajuli town in the Sonitpur district.
October 6: At least 13 Railway Protection Force personnel are killed by in an ambush by the DHD militants belonging to the Black Widow faction in the North Cachar Hills district.
September 10: The DHD cadres belonging to the anti-talks faction headed by Jewel Gorlosa set ablaze two labour camps at different construction sites of the Northeast Frontier Railway’s broad gauge project in the North Cachar Hills, as the companies involved in the project fail to pay ransom to the militants. Additional Superintendent of Police Bidyut Buragohain confirmed that two labour sheds at Asong Haju and Saron Basti under Mahur police station were set ablaze by at least 12 cadres of the outfit.
August 14: Three persons, including a woman and her son, are killed and seven others sustain injuries when suspected ULFA militants triggered a grenade explosion targeting security convoys near Lifecare Nursing Home at Duliajan town in the Dibrugarh district.
August 11: At least six police personnel are killed after suspected ULFA militants ambush a police convoy at Ratanipathar under Pengeri police station in the Tinsukia district. While five personnel are killed at the incident site, another succumbs to injuries in the Assam Medical College Hospital.
August 1: At least six police personnel are killed after suspected ULFA militants ambush a police convoy at Ratanipathar under Pengeri police station in the Tinsukia district. While five personnel are killed at the incident site, another succumbs to injuries in the Assam Medical College Hospital.
July 26: An unidentified DHD cadre belonging to the Jewel Gorlossa faction triggers a grenade explosion, targeting CRPF personnel, killing three civilians, including one female child, and injuring three others at a railway station in Maibong of North Cachar Hills district.
June 9: At least five persons, including a 10-year-old boy and a woman, are killed and 16 persons wounded in a powerful explosion triggered by the ULFA at Machkowa vegetable market in the Guwahati city of Kamrup district.
June 8: The ULFA triggers a series of grenade explosions, while targeting security force (SF) personnel, at various parts of the State leaving at least 25 persons wounded. While six persons are injured in a blast at Haiborgaon in the Nagaon district, another is injured when militants trigger a blast at Islampur Chowk in the Mangaldoi district.
February 10: Eight civilians and one SF personnel are killed during clashes between the villagers and SFs following the alleged custodial death of a suspected United ULFA militant at Kakopathar in upper Assam's Tinsukia district. The ULFA cadre, whom the villagers described as a civilian, was detained by the army on February 6 and his dead body is subsequently recovered.
December 3: 379 houses are set ablaze by DHD militants in six villages of Mohendijua and Lunhnit areas in the Karbi Anglong district.
October 21: Suspected DHD militants kill nine UPDS cadres at Tamulbari under Diphu police station in the Karbi Anglong district.
October 18: Seven persons are killed in the continuing ethnic clashes in Karbi Anglong district. Six bodies are recovered from the Doyangmukh area while another was recovered from Borlangphar Tisso village under Diphu police station.
October 17: Suspected DHD militants waylay two passenger buses travelling from Zirikinding at Charchim under Kheroni police station in Karbi Anglong district and kill 23 persons, including nine women, belonging to the Karbi tribe. The same group of armed militants later kill seven persons in the nearby Sarsing village and five more persons in Prseck village.
October 10: Six persons are killed during ethnic clashes in Karbi Anglong district. A group of 100 to 150 armed persons enter the Kheroni village, inhabited by the Dimasa tribe, and open indiscriminate fire killing six persons on the spot. Nearly 60 houses also set ablaze by the miscreants.
October 9: Six persons from the Bura Fanchu and Longsing Engti villages are killed and hundreds of houses are set ablaze by unidentified terrorists in separate incidents under Diphu and Bokajan police stations in the Karbi Anglong district.
October 8: Suspected militants enter the Karbi-dominated Borsing Bey village, seven km away from Diphu, and kill five Karbi villagers, including a two-year old child, and set ablaze more than 60 huts.
October 2: Five members of a family are killed by unidentified militants at Hemari Terang village under Diphu police station in the Karbi Anglong district.
September 14: Eight persons are killed and several others sustain injuries as suspected Kuki Revolutionary Army militants open indiscriminate fire at Thekerajan village in the Karbi Anglong district.
August 7: Four persons are killed and 12 others sustain injuries in an explosion detonated by the ULFA at a bus stand at Boko in the Kamrup district.
June 19: Four ULFA terrorists and one SF personnel are killed during two encounters in the Nalbari district.
June 16: Four ULFA terrorists, including three woman cadres, are killed in an encounter with the police at Doloni village under Khowang Police Station in the Dibrugarh district.
October 29: Five ULFA terrorists, members of the outfit’s ‘Action Group’, are killed in an encounter at Kasojuli village under Laluk police station limits in the Lakhimpur district. A large quantity of arms and ammunition are recovered from their possession.
October 5: Suspected NDFB terrorists shot dead at least ten civilians and wounded seven others in the Jalabila village of Dhubri district.
October 4: Six civilians are shot dead and seven others sustain injuries when terrorists affiliated to the outlawed NDFB opened indiscriminate firing at Gelapukhuri village in Biswanath Chariali.
October 3: Fourteen more persons are killed and at least 58 others sustain injuries in separate incidents of terrorist violence in Assam for the second consecutive day.
October 2: Suspected NDFB and ULFA terrorists trigger a series of bomb blasts and open indiscriminate firing at various places in lower Assam killing at least 24 people and wounding over 40.
August 26: ULFA triggers off a series of bomb blasts in different districts of Assam, killing six persons and injuring 80 others.
August 15: 17 persons, including 16 school children, are killed as ULFA detonates explosives at the venue of Independence day celebrations in Dhemaji town.
June 24: Seven bus passengers are killed and fifteen others sustain injuries as suspected ULFA terrorists detonate a bomb inside a passenger bus at Majgaon under Mathurapur police station limits in the Sibsagar district.
March 24: Suspected KRA terrorists kill at least 33 Karbi villagers in three separate places in the Karbi Anglong district.
March 19: Suspected terrorists of the anti-talks faction of UPDS kill six Kuki tribals and set ablaze seven houses at the remote Thengbong village in the Singhasan hills area of Karbi Anglong district.
March 3: Four ULFA terrorists are killed in an encounter with troops of the Red Horns Division of the Army at Tepkilobana in the Kamrup district.
January 28: Four ULFA terrorists trying to enter into Assam from Bhutan are killed in an encounter at Paharbasti under Tamulpur police station jurisdiction in the Nalbari district.
January 1: Four NDFB terrorists are killed in an encounter with the Army along the India-Bhutan border at Paharpur under Darrangamela police station limits in Nalbari district.
November 22: Eleven brick kiln labourers of Bihari origin are killed and seven others are injured by suspected ULFA terrorists in the Bordubi area of Tinsukia district.
October 11: Five traders are killed by the ULFA near Digulturrung tea estate in Tinsukia district.
September 14: Two army personnel, two civilians and a ULFA terrorist are killed in an encounter at Molung Pathar in Tinsukia district.
June 20: ULFA terrorist and two personnel of the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) are killed in an encounter at Nagajan in Tinsukia district. The terrorists also blow up an empty crude oil tank with a rocket launcher.
March 16: Six civilians are killed and 55 others injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast set-off by ULFA terrorists under a passenger bus on National Highway No. 7, Bamunghopha, Goalpara district.
March 8: Suspected ULFA terrorists attack an oil storage depot and a gas pipeline in Tinsukia district, causing a loss of approximately Rupees 200 million to the Indian Oil Corporation.
October 27: NDFB terrorists massacre 22 civilians after dragging them out of their houses in Datgiri village, Kokrajhar district.
October 13: Unidentified terrorists kill five persons in a grenade attack at a Hindu religious congregation in Bongaigaon district.
August 21: NDFB terrorists kill four police personnel and a civilian in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast at Maladhara, Lakhipur police station limits, Goalpara district.
July 30: NDFB lays an ambush near Durgapur village, Kokrahar district, killing five security force personnel and two civilians.
July 18: Seven security force personnel are killed and a civilian injured in an ambush, laid allegedly by DHD terrorists near Diyungmukh, a local market in the North Cachar Hills district.
July 14: Suspected NDFB terrorists massacre nine tribals at the West Maligaon forest village relief camps, Kokrajhar district.
April 5: NDFB terrorists kill five tribals at Hatiphuli relief camp in Kokrajhar and another at the relief camp in Tongsi, Dhubri district.
January 27: Suspected ULFA terrorists kill Kamrup Deputy district police chief Devajit Pathak and his driver on the Boko-Nalapara road by triggering an Improvised Explosive Devise (IED) blast in Nalapara village.
January 23: Unidentified terrorists kill ‘vice-chairman’ of the United People's Democratic Solidarity (UPDS) in Karbi Anglong district.
January 15: Thirteen civilians are massacred by NDFB terrorists at Dailongjhar in Bongaigon district.
December 3: Eight persons, including six government officials on election duty, are killed in an IED explosion by suspected UPDS terrorists at Lamelangso in the Karbi Anglong district.
October 29: Four persons, including two police personnel, are killed in an attack by suspected DHD terrorists at Dhanasiri in Karbi Anglong district.
October 19: 10 NDFB cadres and three police personnel are killed as the NDFB attacks a police station at Labdanguri in Barpeta district.
August 25: Suspected UPDS terrorists killed four persons by blowing up a truck at Bhuligaon, Karbi Anglong district.
August 5: 10 persons, including eight
security force personnel, are killed in an explosion caused by suspected
NDFB terrorists at Silbari in Bongaigaon district.
July 31: Six Bhutanese citizens are killed in an explosion at Dadgiri.
June 3: 10 tribals are killed by suspected NDFB terrorists at the Lungsung Reserved forest area.
May 3: Six Asom Gana Parishad (AGP) activists are killed by suspected ULFA terrorists in the Nalbari and Goalpara districts.
March 18: Six persons, including two children, are killed by suspected NDFB terrorists at Ramgaon village in Kamrup district
March 6: Six persons are killed in an ambush on a truck by suspected Adivasi terrorists at Fulkumari village in Kokrajhar district.
February 8: Nine police personnel are killed and three others are injured in an ambush laid by unidentified terrorists near Dehangi in North Cachar hills district.
January 29: 11 woodcutters are killed by suspected UPDS terrorists in the Thansa forest area of Karbi Anglong district.
January 13: Four civilians are killed by suspected National Democratic Font of Bodoland terrorists in Nalbari district.
January 2: Three Surrendered ULFA (SULFA) cadres, including former ULFA leader Abinash Bordoloi, are killed by suspected ULFA terrorists in Nalbari district.
December 31: Four Hind-speaking persons are killed by suspected UPDS terrorists at Disobai forest in Karbi Anglong district.
December 28: Eight persons from the Hindi-speaking community are killed by suspected UPDS terrorists at Ranganagar village in Karbi Anglong district.
December 7: 28 Hindi-speaking traders and farm workers from Bihar are killed by suspected ULFA terrorists near Sadiya.
November 30: 22 persons -- a majority of them non-Assamese, including eight Bihari truck drivers – are killed in three separate massacres in the Bongaigaon district.
November 25: Eight woodcutters are killed by NDFB terrorists in the Lung Sung forest reserve.
November 8: Eight civilians, including seven of a non-Assamese community, are killed by suspected NDFB terrorists in Barpeta district.
October 23: 15 persons are killed by suspected ULFA terrorists in two separate incidents in the Tinsukia and Dibrugarh districts.
September 14: NSCN-IM and UPDS terrorists kill eleven persons, including ten police personnel, in an ambush near Diphu.
August 25: Bodo terrorists kill five persons in a landmine blast in Kokrajhar district.
August 21: NDFB terrorists kill five civilians in Dhubri. At Garagaon, another group of NDFB terrorists kill Bodo legislator Mohini Basumatary.
April 19: UPDS terrorists massacre 11 persons in two separate incidents in Karbi Anglong district.
October 3: Five police personnel are killed in an attack by ULFA terrorists near Rupasi in Barpeta district.
September 30: Four persons are killed in an attack by ULFA terrorists on a election campaign party of the Asom Gana Parishad at Dholpur Chapori, Mangaldoi district.
August 23: Unidentified terrorists launch a bomb attack on a vehicle of Central Reserve Police Force killing four persons at Maithang Bridge, Kakopathar police station limits, Tinsukia District.
June 29: Seven police personnel are killed in an explosion set-off by Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) terrorists in two separate villages near Rangiya, Kamrup district.
March 8: Seven family members of ULFA terrorists are killed in a retaliatory attack by SULFA cadres in Guwahati.
January 23: Seven civilians are killed by suspected NDFB terrorists in Darrang District.
January 1: Three police personnel are killed in an attack by suspected NDFB terrorists on a camp of the 7th battalion of Assam police in Bhumka, Kokrajhar district
December 20: Six security force personnel and four civilians are killed in an ambush laid by ULFA terrorists in Dhubri district.
December 12: Bodo terrorists kill 23 Muslim settlers in Kokrajhar district.
October 11: BLTF terrorists kill 13 Assamese and Bengali-speaking people in Darrang district.
September 28: Seven security force personnel are killed in an ambush laid by ULFA terrorists in Goalpara district.
Incident details 1997
January 13: Bodo Security Force (BSF) militants kill nine cadres of the rival Bodo Liberation Tiger Force (BLTF) in a raid on their camp in Nalbari District.
May 23: Violent clashes between Bodo terrorists and Santhals leave more than 80 people dead in Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts.
April 25: ULFA terrorists kill a local Congress (I) leader and four others near Margherita town, Tinsukia district.
August 3: ULFA terrorists kill eight security force personnel in an ambush in Kamrup district
May 27 - July 27: Bodo terrorists carry out large-scale attacks on non-Bodos, leaving more than 100 people dead and over 60,000 homeless.
October 12: 50 people are killed by Bodo terrorists in the Kokrajhar and Bongaigaon districts.
October 13 - November 21: 61 people died in Guwahati and Barpeta Districts in three bomb explosions allegedly caused by Bodo Security Force (BSF) militants.
October 13: 21 persons are killed in a bomb explosion on board in a train engineered by Bodo Security Force (BSF) militants.
May 9: ULFA terrorists kill Surendra Paul, a leading tea planter, causing many tea estate managers to flee the State.