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Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) - Former Terrorist Group of Assam

On December 6, 2003, 2641 cadres of the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) renounced violence and surrendered along with arms and ammunition at Kokrajhar, marking an end to seven years of insurgency. On the following day, an interim 12-member executive council of the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) was formed in Kokrajhar.

A Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) for the creation of the BTC was reached at a tripartite meeting held in New Delhi on February 10, 2003, between the representatives of Union Government, Assam Government and a BLT delegation. The main provisions of the MoS relate 'to creation of the BTC, an autonomous self governing body within the State of Assam and under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India to fulfill economic, educational and linguistic aspirations, socio-cultural and ethnic identity of the Bodos; and to speed up the infrastructure development in BTC area.' The BTC would comprise 3,082 villages in four districts--Kokrajhar and the three yet to be created - Chirang, Udalguri and Baska. The BTC would have 40 elected representatives and the Assam Government would nominate six more. Of the elected representatives, 30 seats would be reserved for tribals, five for non-tribals and the remaining five would be open for general contest.

The BLT, prior to its en-masse surrender, had been observing a cease-fire with the Government since July 14, 1999. This cease-fire was formally agreed to in March 2000 and subsequently at the January 20, 2003, tripartite meeting was extended till February 21, 2003.


The BLT (also known as the Bodo Liberation Tiger Force or BLTF) was established on June 18, 1996, under the leadership of Prem Singh Brahma.


BLT's projects its major objectives as:

  • creation of a separate State of Bodoland in the north bank of the Brahmaputra;
  • creation of an autonomous district council in the south bank of the Brahmaputra; and
  • inclusion of the Bodos of Karbi Anglong district in the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.


Hagrama Basumatary is the 'chairman-cum-commander-in-chief' of BLT. In the interim BTC, Basumatary is the Chief Executive Member. Other important leaders of the BLT include Kamal Mushahray alias Chandran Narzari, 'vice-chairman' (Vice-Executive Member of the interim BTC); and Mainao Daimary, 'publicity secretary' (Member of the interim BTC) and the 'secretary general' Derhasat Basumatary (Member of the interim BTC).

Areas of Operation

The Kokrajhar, Dhubri, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari and Darrang districts of Assam constituted the area of operation for the BLT.


The BLT, prior to its peace parleys with the Government, is reported to have maintained few hideouts in Bhutan.



  • August 29: The Police arrested Mithu Chetri in connection with the abduction of Bishnu Kedia and his brother in-law Sanjay Agarwala from the Amsing-Jorabat area under Chachal Police Station in Guwahati. Mithu, a former BLT cadre, was an employee of Ras Dairy owned by Kedia.

  • July 8: The Ex- BLT Welfare Society today demanded that the Government should arrest United Democratic People's Front (UDPF) spokesman Pradip Kumar Daimary who is also the MCLA of BTC for his alleged nexus with the rebel outfit NDFB.

  • July 7: Several long-distance trains, including Rajdhani Express, were stranded at various stations in lower Assam and Bengal from 9am in the wake of a three-hour rail rook (shut down) called by the Ex-BLT. Welfare Society and Surrendered NDFB Welfare Association, demanding proper implementation of the Bodo Accord. Several ex-BLT and surrendered NDFB cadres sat along the tracks, holding banners and placards, in Kokrajhar and Goreswar rail stations

  • March 16: More than 10,000 militants surrendered before the Government in Assam since 1998. As per the list submitted by the Assam Government in the State Assembly, the ULFA topped the list of surrendered militants as during the period from 1998 to March 5, 2010, more than 4260 militants belonging to the outfit have laid down arms. The list included 2711 militants of the BLT, which was disbanded following the signing of the Memorandum of Settlement between the Government and the outfit in 2003. The list included 514 KLNLF and 416 BW militants. These outfits surrendered weapons to come for talks with the Government for political solution of their problems.


  • December 8: The former BLT cadres assault one youth, Moinul Ali (24), at Kajalgaon. Subsequently, local people in retaliation set ablaze office of the former BLT cadres. Two former BLT cadres were also wounded in the attack.

  • August 22: A joint meeting between the ex-BLT and the surrendered NDFB militants was held at Debargaon in the Kokrajhar District to discuss the rehabilitation of surrendered members, life security and implementation of BTC accord. The meeting was chaired by President of the ex-BLT Welfare Society, Jono Mahon Mashahary, where the BTC chief Hagrama Mohilary, who was the chairman of the disbanded BLT, was also present along with Transport Minister Chandan Brahma and other senior colleagues. In an interview with media, Mohilary said the former BLT members and surrendered NDFB militants were not fully rehabilitated even after five years of BTC accord although it was the part of clauses in the accord. He said the ex-BLT and surrendered NDFB members have been facing lack of security of life. The ex-BLT Welfare Society and the All Surrendered NDFB Welfare Association will jointly initiate to discuss the matter with the Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi, he said, adding that both the associations will launch an agitation if their demands are not fulfilled.

  • August 10: Former BLT militants of the BLT Welfare Society presented a memorandum to the Union Government and urged the Government to rein in the NDFB, accusing it of creating terror in the region. In the memorandum to the Union Minister for Home Affairs P. Chidambaram through Kokrajhar Deputy Commissioner Carol Narzary, the former militants of the now defunct BLT said the NDFB was trying to destabilise the Bodo areas and put brakes on development. The memorandum said development in the Bodo belt was "moving fast in the right direction under Hagrama Mohilary" but there was a "counter campaign" against the "good work". "The NDFB (ceasefire) and Ranjan Daimary fraction of NDFB are indulging in violence in the region to terrorise the people. In a diabolical design to destabilise the region, the NDFB is killing innocent people," it added. The society also accused the Rabiram Narzary-led BPPF of encouraging the NDFB in carrying out unlawful activities. Earlier, members of the ex-BLT Welfare Society took out a rally from Kadamtola Bodoland Secretariat ground to the Deputy Commissioner's office in Kokrajhar town. Similar rallies were held in Chirang, Baksa and Udalguri Districts under the Bodo Territorial Council.

  • July 25: The Police arrested Odang Wary, a Constable of the Assam Police and four former BLT cadres in connection with hijacking of three vehicles and abduction of the drivers in Chirang District.

  • June 26: Unidentified militants suspected to be former BLT cadres shot at one Ajit Narzary (25) of Nillaijhara village under Gossaigaon sub-division in Kokrajhar District. According to sources, Narzary's younger brother is a NDFB militant.

  • June 22: The dead body of an ex- BLT cadre, Mukul Daimary of Boro Kursakati area, was recovered from near Basugaon railway station in the Chirang District. Daimary was reportedly missing since June 21.

  • June 16: A former BLT cadre, Enjur Gwra Basumatary of Nadangiri under the Salakati Police outpost of Kokrajhar District, was shot at by unidentified militants.


  • March 14: Assam Home Minister, Rockybul Hussain, speaking in the Legislative Assembly discloses that 4,768 terrorists have surrendered in the State between January 2001 and February 2005. He says that the surrendered include 2648 BLT cadres.

  • March 2: At least 352 former BLT militants are inducted into the para-military Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF).


  • October 16: Assam Government transfers 39 subjects under the jurisdiction of the BTC at a function held in Kokrajhar, in pursuance to the MoS signed between the State Government, Government of India and BLT on February 10, 2003.

  • October 15: Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi says in Guwahati that the cease-fire with the NDFB will be on similar lines as those with the BLT and NSCN-IM.

  • September 21: NDFB cadres lob a grenade at a camp sheltering the surrendered BLT militants at Kachugaon in the Kokrajhar district injuring one person.

  • September 1: MHA sources say that the ministry has notified the paramilitary forces to appoint 1,000 former BLT militants. Among the 1,000 posts, 550 are to be filled up in CRPF, 300 in the Border Security Force (BSF) and 150 in the Assam Rifles (AR).

  • May 28: A former BLT cadre is killed by suspected NDFB militants at Sanapur Koilamoila village under Amguri police station limits in the Kokrajhar district.

  • April 23: BLT activist, identified as Dagla Brahma, is reportedly shot dead by suspected NDFB militants in the Dhubri district of Assam.

  • March 24: Assam Government decides to appoint 400 former BLT cadres as Special Police Officers, fulfilling a commitment in its MoU with the disbanded militant group.


  • December 13: NDFB warns the BLT, Army and Santhals of Assam with dire consequences if they do not stop atrocities on people in Kokrajhar.

  • December 7: A 12-member interim executive council of the BTC is administered oath of office in Kokrajhar.

  • December 6: 2641 BLT cadres led by BLT chairman Hagrama Basumatary surrender with 615 numbers of arms in Kokrajhar.

  • December 2: BLT submits a list of 12 names for the executive committee of the interim BTC to the State Government.

  • November 27: The Assam Government, through an official notification, announces a general amnesty and withdrawal of cases registered against persons related to the over ground Bodo movement since 1987.

  • November 23: The Sanmilita Janagosthiya Sangram Samiti (SJSS) calls for a 72-hour Assam bandh (general shutdown) from December 6 in protest against the formation of BTC.

  • November 9: The Nalbari district unit of BLT threatens SJSS activists of severe consequences 'if they failed to refrain themselves from indulging in anti-people activities in the BTC area'.

  • November 6: Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi states that the Interim BTC would be formed after the civic elections in the State to be held on December 1.

  • November 5: BLT and the ABSU leadership decide to exert pressure on the State Government to withdraw all cases registered against BLT cadres since 1987 before the formation of the interim BTC.

  • October 30: The State Government and the BLT leadership arrive at an agreement to form the council pending solution to the contentious issues, including the inclusion of majority of additional villages.

  • October 25: The NDFB blames BLT and officials of Assam Forest Department, Bongaigaon, of felling valuable trees from Longchung reserve forest under Ultapani and Bishmuri range and forcing the people to carry those logs to Runikata BLT office.

  • September 16: Bodo leaders meet the Assam Governor in Guwahati and seek his intervention for removing the hurdles in the way of forming the interim BTC.

  • September 11: Meeting held in Guwahati between the representatives of the Union and Assam Governments and the BLT to discuss the inclusion of 93 additional villages in the BTC remains inconclusive.

  • September 8: President APJ Abdul Kalam assents to the bill for amendment in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution to pave way for creation of the BTC.
    BLT reiterates its commitment of laying down arms after the formation of the BTC.

  • August 27: BLT declares that the outfit would not accept an interim Council till all clauses of the Bodo Accord signed on February 10, 2003 are implemented and cadres of the outfit would surrender arms only after the Council formation.

  • August 20: NDFB kills BLT cadre at Ladangguri under Sarbhog police station limits in Barpeta district.

  • August 19: Two BLT terrorists are arrested from Dufflaghur under Gohpur police station limits in Tinsukia district.
  • August 6: Lok Sabha (Lower House of Indian Parliament) passes the BTC bill.

  • August 1: BTC bill tabled in Lok Sabha (Lower House of Indian Parliament).

  • July 30: BLT chairman Hagrama Basumatary says that BLT cadres under the Karbi Anglong and Tiwa, Mising and Rabha-Hasong Autonomous Council jurisdictions in Assam would not surrender arms until Bodos there are given ‘status’ at par with the other tribes.

  • July 14: Parliamentary Standing Committee clears BTC Bill, agreement for which was signed with the BLT.
  • July 14: Parliamentary Standing Committee clears the BTC Bill.

  • June 30: BLT chairman Hagrama Basumatary urges the Government for a speedy implementation of the BTC Accord signed on February 10, 2003 and also appeals to the rival outfit NDFB to join the peace process.

  • June 22: NDFB terrorists ambush a motorbike-borne BLT group at Dhigalpara under the Bismuri police outpost, Kokrajhar district killing a BLT cadre identified as Bhatra Basumatary.

  • June 17: Report indicates that the BLT has issued 'directives' to timber smugglers in Kokrajhar district not to fell any tree or carry them from the reserve forests.

  • June 11: Media reports indicate that the NDFB has issued threats, among others to the leaders of its rival BLT.

  • May 28: Railway Protection Force identifies four insurgency prone sectors in the Northeast and says that the BLT is active in the Guwahati-Rangiya-Srirampur and the Rangiya-Rangapara sector.

  • May 27: Report indicates that the Union Government is likely to promulgate an ordinance to give effect to the provisions of the Agreement signed on February 10, 2003 with the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) stipulating creation of an autonomous Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC).

  • May 9: Bodo Members of Parliament, U.G. Brahma and S.K. Bwismutiary, meet Deputy Prime Minister L.K. Advani and discuss the status of the Bodo areas as proposed under the BTC agreement which was signed on February 10, 2003.

  • May 6: Union Cabinet decides to amend, among others, the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution to incorporate necessary changes required for the passage of the BTC Bill by the Parliament.

  • April 17: Supreme Court admits petition filed by former Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) chairman Kanakeswar Narzary challenging the Memorandum of Settlement (MoS), signed, on February 10, 2003, between the Union and Assam Governments and the BLT.

  • March 25: BLT 'chairman' Hagrama Basumatary reassures non-Bodos in the proposed BTC area of the protection of their rights and 'privileges'.

  • March 24: Suspected BLT cadres kill a correspondent of a vernacular daily at Banyatari, Gauripur police station-limits, Darrang district.
  • February 11: BLT chairman Hagrama Basumatary says if the BTC Accord signed on February 10 is executed in letter and spirit, the Bodos will not have to go for another accord in future to assert their rights and development.

  • February 10: At tripartite meeting in New Delhi, representatives of Union and State governments sign agreement with Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) delegation approving formation of the BTC in Bodo dominated areas of Assam.

  • February 8: Prime Minister Vajpayee expresses confidence that negotiations with BLT would yield a "positive agreement" while speaking at a Chief Ministers' Conference on Internal Security in New Delhi.

  • February 5: BLT says it might sign agreement with the Union and the Assam governments at the next round of tripartite meeting likely be held on February 10.

  • February 3: Assam Cabinet meeting in Guwahati endorses decision to reserve 30 seats for Bodo community, five for non-Bodos and that five more are left open for contest in the proposed 40-member Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC).

BLT 'vice-chairman' Kamal Mushahary says the outfit is ready to accept Assam government’s modified formula for reservation of seats in the proposed BTC for tribals and non-tribals.

  • January 27: Suspected BLT terrorists kill colleague and four members of his family, including two women, at Duligaon, Dhubri district.

  • January 20: Cease-fire with BLT extended till February 21 at the end of a tripartite meeting between Assam government, BLT and Union Home Ministry officials in New Delhi.

  • January 13: Deputy Premier L.K. Advani expresses optimism that peace process with BLT would succeed and difficulties in creating the BTC would shortly be overcome.

  • January 9: BLT demands that proposed BTC should consist of 45 constituencies instead of 40 when its delegation led by vice-president Kamal Mushahary meets Assam State Health Minister Bhumidhar Barman and Minister of Fisheries and Welfare of Plain Tribes and Backward Classes Bharat Narah.

  • January 6: BLT secretary general Derhasat Basumatary announces that the outfit would not observe cease-fire beyond January 21 if decision on proposed BTC is not arrived at.

  • January 6: BLT alleges that all-party meetings delay the resolution of differences over boundary of the BTC.

  • January 2: State-level all party meeting to finalise the BTC boundary and share of non-Bodos in the proposed Council ends indecisively in Guwahati.

  • January 1: Assam police personnel rescue civilian from Akashi Ganga, bordering Nagaon and Karbi Anglong districts of Assam following encounter in which two abductors alleged to be BLT terrorists are killed. The civilian was held captive since December 21, 2002.


  • December 18: Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi appeals to Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) to act responsibly over the creation of the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC). He also asks the BLT to accept extension beyond December 22 of the cease-fire agreement with the Union government.

  • December 17: BLT threatens to resume violence if the BTC is not formed.

Reports indicate that the BLT has 'ordered' businessmen not to indulge in 'illicit trade' of liquor and lotteries in Assam's Kokrajhar district.

  • September 10: Deputy Prime Minister L K Advani discusses Bodo issue with a BLT delegation that included 'vice chairman' Kamal Mushahary and 'publicity secretary' Mainoo Daimari. Advani informs the BLT leaders that an inter-ministerial meeting would be held on October 13 and 14 to work out an economic package for Bodo areas.

  • August 6: BLT sets free 17 Utterkuchi villagers held hostage since August 3 in Nalbari district Assam.

  • August 3: Suspected BLT cadres beat up and threaten forest officials near Boko, Kamrup district, following the officials refusal to let go a raft they had seized and which was allegedly carrying illegal timber consignment. Suspected BLT cadres abduct 17 non-Bodo villagers from Utterkuchi village, Nalbari district.

  • July 18: At a tripartite meeting in New Delhi, Union government agrees to defer the ban on the BLT and continue to suspend operations, for another six months beginning July 21, against the outfit.

  • July 16: BLT alleges that Adivasi Cobra terrorists were responsible for the July 14-massacre of nine Adivasis in Kokrajhar district.
  • June 18: BLT observes sixth 'foundation day' in Kokarajhar.

  • May 15: BLT executive committee reiterates that boundaries of the proposed BTC should be in conformity with its demands. Also, it says it may stop participating in the tripartite meetings.

  • May 6: Delhi tripartite meeting on the BTC between the BLT, Assam government and Union government ends inconclusively.

  • May 4: BLT president Hagrama Basumatary is quoted as saying that the BLT would rethink on its further participation in the tripartite talks with the State and Union governments on the BTC issue.

  • March 23, 24: BLT leaders participate in the tripartite meeting with the Assam government and the Union government. Decision taken to allow the Assam government to formulate modalities for amendment to the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution taken.

  • February 13: State Cabinet formally approves the formation of Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) under the modified Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India, with adequate and specific safeguards of the rights of the non-Bodos.

  • February 12: Suspected BLT terrorists allegedly kill a businessman at Basugaon in Kokarajhar. Victim's father was also seriously injured in the incident.

  • February 10: Sub-Committee of the Assam State Cabinet meets leaders of the BLTF at Dispur.

  • January 31: The Sonitpur 'district chairman' of the BLT, Shanti Basumatary killed at Gajenpathar, under Gohpur police station limits, by the suspected National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) terrorists.


  • September 15: Decision taken to extend cease-fire with the BLTF till January 21, 2002.
  • March 20: 10 BLTF terrorists arrested at Rani while collecting an extortion amount of Rs 80,000.


  • December 23: Government of Bhutan blames the BLTF for the massacre of its citizens in Assam.
  • December 21: Sixteen civilians, including ten Bhutanese traders, killed in separate incidents by suspected BLTF terrorists in Barpeta, Darrang and Nalbari district.
  • December 12: 11 BLTF terrorists killed in an internecine clash with terrorists of the rival National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) in Barpeta district.
  • September 12: Suspension of operations by security forces against the BLTF in Assam further extended for one year following an agreement between the Central government, the Assam Government and the BLTF. The extension comes into effect on September 15.
  • March 29: Union government and BLTF arrive at an agreement on 'ground rules for truce' and to set up a Joint Monitoring Group to oversee the ceasefire.
  • March 15: Union Home Minister L.K. Advani informs Parliament that operations against the BLTF have been suspended after the group agreed to abide by the Indian Constitution.


  • October 11: BLTF terrorists kill 13 Assamese and Bengali-speaking people in Darrang district.
  • August 15: BLTF terrorists kill seven people.

Landmark developments culminating in the Interim Bodoland Territorial Council,
December 7, 2003

Note:Compiled from news reports and are provisional.






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