Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) - Former
Terrorist Group of Assam
On December 6, 2003,
2641 cadres of the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) renounced violence and
surrendered along with arms and ammunition at Kokrajhar, marking an
end to seven years of insurgency. On the following day, an interim 12-member
executive council of the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) was formed
A Memorandum of
Settlement (MoS) for the creation of the BTC was reached at a tripartite
meeting held in New Delhi on February 10, 2003, between the representatives
of Union Government, Assam Government and a BLT delegation. The main
provisions of the MoS relate 'to creation of the BTC, an autonomous
self governing body within the State of Assam and under the provisions
of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India to fulfill economic,
educational and linguistic aspirations, socio-cultural and ethnic identity
of the Bodos; and to speed up the infrastructure development in BTC
area.' The BTC would comprise 3,082 villages in four districts--Kokrajhar
and the three yet to be created - Chirang, Udalguri and Baska. The BTC
would have 40 elected representatives and the Assam Government would
nominate six more. Of the elected representatives, 30 seats would be
reserved for tribals, five for non-tribals and the remaining five would
be open for general contest.
The BLT, prior to
its en-masse surrender, had been observing a cease-fire with the Government
since July 14, 1999. This cease-fire was formally agreed to in March
2000 and subsequently at the January 20, 2003, tripartite meeting was
extended till February 21, 2003.
BLT (also known as the Bodo Liberation Tiger Force or BLTF) was established
on June 18, 1996, under the leadership of Prem Singh Brahma.
projects its major objectives as:
- creation of a
separate State of Bodoland in the north bank of the Brahmaputra;
- creation of an
autonomous district council in the south bank of the Brahmaputra;
- inclusion of
the Bodos of Karbi Anglong district in the Sixth Schedule of the Indian
Basumatary is the 'chairman-cum-commander-in-chief' of BLT. In the interim
BTC, Basumatary is the Chief Executive Member. Other important leaders
of the BLT include Kamal Mushahray alias Chandran Narzari, 'vice-chairman'
(Vice-Executive Member of the interim BTC); and Mainao Daimary, 'publicity
secretary' (Member of the interim BTC) and the 'secretary general' Derhasat
Basumatary (Member of the interim BTC).
Areas of Operation
Kokrajhar, Dhubri, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari and Darrang districts
of Assam constituted the area of operation for the BLT.
BLT, prior to its peace parleys with the Government, is reported to
have maintained few hideouts in Bhutan.
August 29: The Police arrested
Mithu Chetri in connection with the abduction of Bishnu Kedia and
his brother in-law Sanjay Agarwala from the Amsing-Jorabat area
under Chachal Police Station in Guwahati. Mithu, a former BLT cadre,
was an employee of Ras Dairy owned by Kedia.
July 8: The Ex-
BLT Welfare Society today demanded that the Government should arrest
United Democratic People's Front (UDPF) spokesman Pradip Kumar Daimary
who is also the MCLA of BTC for his alleged nexus with the rebel
July 7: Several
long-distance trains, including Rajdhani Express, were stranded
at various stations in lower Assam and Bengal from 9am in the wake
of a three-hour rail rook (shut down) called by the Ex-BLT. Welfare
Society and Surrendered NDFB Welfare Association, demanding proper
implementation of the Bodo Accord. Several ex-BLT and surrendered
NDFB cadres sat along the tracks, holding banners and placards,
in Kokrajhar and Goreswar rail stations
March 16: More than
10,000 militants surrendered before the Government in Assam since
1998. As per the list submitted by the Assam Government in the State
Assembly, the ULFA topped the list of surrendered militants as during
the period from 1998 to March 5, 2010, more than 4260 militants
belonging to the outfit have laid down arms. The list included 2711
militants of the BLT, which was disbanded following the signing
of the Memorandum of Settlement between the Government and the outfit
in 2003. The list included 514 KLNLF and 416 BW militants. These
outfits surrendered weapons to come for talks with the Government
for political solution of their problems.
December 8: The former BLT cadres assault one youth,
Moinul Ali (24), at Kajalgaon. Subsequently, local people in retaliation
set ablaze office of the former BLT cadres. Two former BLT cadres
were also wounded in the attack.
August 22: A joint meeting between the ex-BLT and
the surrendered NDFB militants was held at Debargaon in the Kokrajhar
District to discuss the rehabilitation of surrendered members, life
security and implementation of BTC accord. The meeting was chaired
by President of the ex-BLT Welfare Society, Jono Mahon Mashahary,
where the BTC chief Hagrama Mohilary, who was the chairman of the
disbanded BLT, was also present along with Transport Minister Chandan
Brahma and other senior colleagues. In an interview with media,
Mohilary said the former BLT members and surrendered NDFB militants
were not fully rehabilitated even after five years of BTC accord
although it was the part of clauses in the accord. He said the ex-BLT
and surrendered NDFB members have been facing lack of security of
life. The ex-BLT Welfare Society and the All Surrendered NDFB Welfare
Association will jointly initiate to discuss the matter with the
Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi, he said, adding that both the associations
will launch an agitation if their demands are not fulfilled.
August 10: Former BLT militants of the BLT Welfare
Society presented a memorandum to the Union Government and urged
the Government to rein in the NDFB, accusing it of creating terror
in the region. In the memorandum to the Union Minister for Home
Affairs P. Chidambaram through Kokrajhar Deputy Commissioner Carol
Narzary, the former militants of the now defunct BLT said the NDFB
was trying to destabilise the Bodo areas and put brakes on development.
The memorandum said development in the Bodo belt was "moving fast
in the right direction under Hagrama Mohilary" but there was a "counter
campaign" against the "good work". "The NDFB (ceasefire) and Ranjan
Daimary fraction of NDFB are indulging in violence in the region
to terrorise the people. In a diabolical design to destabilise the
region, the NDFB is killing innocent people," it added. The society
also accused the Rabiram Narzary-led BPPF of encouraging the NDFB
in carrying out unlawful activities. Earlier, members of the ex-BLT
Welfare Society took out a rally from Kadamtola Bodoland Secretariat
ground to the Deputy Commissioner's office in Kokrajhar town. Similar
rallies were held in Chirang, Baksa and Udalguri Districts under
the Bodo Territorial Council.
July 25: The Police arrested Odang Wary, a Constable
of the Assam Police and four former BLT cadres in connection with
hijacking of three vehicles and abduction of the drivers in Chirang
June 26: Unidentified militants suspected to be
former BLT cadres shot at one Ajit Narzary (25) of Nillaijhara village
under Gossaigaon sub-division in Kokrajhar District. According to
sources, Narzary's younger brother is a NDFB militant.
June 22: The dead body of an ex- BLT cadre, Mukul
Daimary of Boro Kursakati area, was recovered from near Basugaon
railway station in the Chirang District. Daimary was reportedly
missing since June 21.
June 16: A former BLT cadre, Enjur
Gwra Basumatary of Nadangiri under the Salakati Police outpost of
Kokrajhar District, was shot at by unidentified militants.
March 14: Assam Home Minister, Rockybul
Hussain, speaking in the Legislative Assembly discloses that 4,768
terrorists have surrendered in the State between January 2001 and
February 2005. He says that the surrendered include 2648 BLT cadres.
March 2: At least 352 former BLT militants
are inducted into the para-military Central Reserve Police Force
October 16: Assam Government transfers
39 subjects under the jurisdiction of the BTC at a function held
in Kokrajhar, in pursuance to the MoS signed between the State Government,
Government of India and BLT on February 10, 2003.
October 15: Assam Chief Minister Tarun
Gogoi says in Guwahati that the cease-fire with the NDFB will be
on similar lines as those with the BLT and NSCN-IM.
September 21: NDFB cadres lob a grenade
at a camp sheltering the surrendered BLT militants at Kachugaon
in the Kokrajhar district injuring one person.
September 1: MHA sources say that the
ministry has notified the paramilitary forces to appoint 1,000 former
BLT militants. Among the 1,000 posts, 550 are to be filled up in
CRPF, 300 in the Border Security Force (BSF) and 150 in the Assam
May 28: A former BLT cadre is killed
by suspected NDFB militants at Sanapur Koilamoila village under
Amguri police station limits in the Kokrajhar district.
April 23: BLT activist, identified
as Dagla Brahma, is reportedly shot dead by suspected NDFB militants
in the Dhubri district of Assam.
March 24: Assam Government decides
to appoint 400 former BLT cadres as Special Police Officers, fulfilling
a commitment in its MoU with the disbanded militant group.
December 13: NDFB warns the BLT, Army
and Santhals of Assam with dire consequences if they do not stop
atrocities on people in Kokrajhar.
A 12-member interim executive council of the BTC is administered
oath of office in Kokrajhar.
2641 BLT cadres led by BLT chairman Hagrama Basumatary surrender
with 615 numbers of arms in Kokrajhar.
BLT submits a list of 12 names for the executive committee of the
interim BTC to the State Government.
The Assam Government, through an official notification, announces
a general amnesty and withdrawal of cases registered against persons
related to the over ground Bodo movement since 1987.
The Sanmilita Janagosthiya Sangram Samiti (SJSS) calls for a 72-hour
Assam bandh (general shutdown) from December 6 in protest against
the formation of BTC.
The Nalbari district unit of BLT threatens SJSS activists of severe
consequences 'if they failed to refrain themselves from indulging
in anti-people activities in the BTC area'.
Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi states that the Interim BTC would
be formed after the civic elections in the State to be held on December
BLT and the ABSU leadership decide to exert pressure on the State
Government to withdraw all cases registered against BLT cadres since
1987 before the formation of the interim BTC.
The State Government and the BLT leadership arrive at an agreement
to form the council pending solution to the contentious issues,
including the inclusion of majority of additional villages.
The NDFB blames BLT and officials of Assam Forest Department, Bongaigaon,
of felling valuable trees from Longchung reserve forest under Ultapani
and Bishmuri range and forcing the people to carry those logs to
Runikata BLT office.
Bodo leaders meet the Assam Governor in Guwahati and seek his intervention
for removing the hurdles in the way of forming the interim BTC.
- September 11: Meeting held in Guwahati
between the representatives of the Union and Assam Governments and
the BLT to discuss the inclusion of 93 additional villages in the
BTC remains inconclusive.
- September 8: President APJ Abdul Kalam
assents to the bill for amendment in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution
to pave way for creation of the BTC.
BLT reiterates its commitment of
laying down arms after the formation of the BTC.
- August 27: BLT declares that the outfit
would not accept an interim Council till all clauses of the Bodo Accord
signed on February 10, 2003 are implemented and cadres of the outfit
would surrender arms only after the Council formation.
- August 20: NDFB kills BLT cadre at Ladangguri
under Sarbhog police station limits in Barpeta district.
- August 19: Two BLT terrorists are arrested
from Dufflaghur under Gohpur police station limits in Tinsukia district.
- August 6: Lok Sabha (Lower House
of Indian Parliament) passes the BTC bill.
- August 1: BTC bill tabled in Lok
Sabha (Lower House of Indian Parliament).
- July 30: BLT chairman Hagrama Basumatary
says that BLT cadres under the Karbi Anglong and Tiwa, Mising and
Rabha-Hasong Autonomous Council jurisdictions in Assam would not surrender
arms until Bodos there are given ‘status’ at par with the other tribes.
- July 14: Parliamentary Standing Committee
clears BTC Bill, agreement for which was signed with the BLT.
July 14: Parliamentary
Standing Committee clears the BTC Bill.
June 30: BLT
chairman Hagrama Basumatary urges the Government for a speedy implementation
of the BTC Accord signed on February 10, 2003 and also appeals to
the rival outfit NDFB to join the peace process.
June 22: NDFB
terrorists ambush a motorbike-borne BLT group at Dhigalpara under
the Bismuri police outpost, Kokrajhar district killing a BLT cadre
identified as Bhatra Basumatary.
June 17: Report
indicates that the BLT has issued 'directives' to timber smugglers
in Kokrajhar district not to fell any tree or carry them from the
June 11: Media
reports indicate that the NDFB has issued threats, among others
to the leaders of its rival BLT.
May 28: Railway
Protection Force identifies four insurgency prone sectors in the
Northeast and says that the BLT is active in the Guwahati-Rangiya-Srirampur
and the Rangiya-Rangapara sector.
May 27: Report
indicates that the Union Government is likely to promulgate an ordinance
to give effect to the provisions of the Agreement signed on February
10, 2003 with the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) stipulating creation
of an autonomous Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC).
May 9: Bodo Members of Parliament,
U.G. Brahma and S.K. Bwismutiary, meet Deputy Prime Minister L.K.
Advani and discuss the status of the Bodo areas as proposed under
the BTC agreement which was signed on February 10, 2003.
- May 6: Union Cabinet decides to amend,
among others, the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution to incorporate
necessary changes required for the passage of the BTC Bill by the
- April 17: Supreme Court admits petition
filed by former Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) chairman Kanakeswar
Narzary challenging the Memorandum of Settlement (MoS), signed, on
February 10, 2003, between the Union and Assam Governments and the
- March 25: BLT 'chairman' Hagrama Basumatary
reassures non-Bodos in the proposed BTC area of the protection of
their rights and 'privileges'.
- March 24: Suspected BLT cadres kill
a correspondent of a vernacular daily at Banyatari, Gauripur police
station-limits, Darrang district.
- February 8: Prime Minister Vajpayee
expresses confidence that negotiations with BLT would yield a "positive
agreement" while speaking at a Chief Ministers' Conference on Internal
Security in New Delhi.
- February 5: BLT says it might sign agreement
with the Union and the Assam governments at the next round of tripartite
meeting likely be held on February 10.
- February 3: Assam Cabinet meeting in
Guwahati endorses decision to reserve 30 seats for Bodo community,
five for non-Bodos and that five more are left open for contest in
the proposed 40-member Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC).
BLT 'vice-chairman' Kamal
Mushahary says the outfit is ready to accept Assam government’s modified
formula for reservation of seats in the proposed BTC for tribals and
- January 27: Suspected BLT terrorists
kill colleague and four members of his family, including two women,
at Duligaon, Dhubri district.
- January 20: Cease-fire with BLT extended
till February 21 at the end of a tripartite meeting between Assam
government, BLT and Union Home Ministry officials in New Delhi.
- January 13: Deputy Premier L.K. Advani
expresses optimism that peace process with BLT would succeed and difficulties
in creating the BTC would shortly be overcome.
- January 9: BLT demands that proposed
BTC should consist of 45 constituencies instead of 40 when its delegation
led by vice-president Kamal Mushahary meets Assam State Health Minister
Bhumidhar Barman and Minister of Fisheries and Welfare of Plain Tribes
and Backward Classes Bharat Narah.
- January 6: BLT secretary general Derhasat
Basumatary announces that the outfit would not observe cease-fire
beyond January 21 if decision on proposed BTC is not arrived at.
- January 6: BLT alleges that all-party
meetings delay the resolution of differences over boundary of the
- January 2: State-level all party meeting
to finalise the BTC boundary and share of non-Bodos in the proposed
Council ends indecisively in Guwahati.
- January 1: Assam police personnel rescue
civilian from Akashi Ganga, bordering Nagaon and Karbi Anglong districts
of Assam following encounter in which two abductors alleged to be
BLT terrorists are killed. The civilian was held captive since December
- December 18: Assam Chief Minister Tarun
Gogoi appeals to Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) to act responsibly over
the creation of the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC). He also asks
the BLT to accept extension beyond December 22 of the cease-fire agreement
with the Union government.
- December 17: BLT threatens to resume
violence if the BTC is not formed.
Reports indicate that
the BLT has 'ordered' businessmen not to indulge in 'illicit trade'
of liquor and lotteries in Assam's Kokrajhar district.
September 10: Deputy Prime Minister L K Advani discusses Bodo issue
with a BLT delegation that included 'vice chairman' Kamal Mushahary
and 'publicity secretary' Mainoo Daimari. Advani informs the BLT
leaders that an inter-ministerial meeting would be held on October
13 and 14 to work out an economic package for Bodo areas.
August 6: BLT sets free 17 Utterkuchi villagers held hostage since
August 3 in Nalbari district Assam.
August 3: Suspected BLT cadres beat up and threaten forest officials
near Boko, Kamrup district, following the officials refusal to let
go a raft they had seized and which was allegedly carrying illegal
timber consignment. Suspected BLT cadres abduct 17 non-Bodo villagers
from Utterkuchi village, Nalbari district.
- July 18: At a tripartite meeting in
New Delhi, Union government agrees to defer the ban on the BLT and
continue to suspend operations, for another six months beginning July
21, against the outfit.
- July 16: BLT alleges that Adivasi Cobra
terrorists were responsible for the July 14-massacre of nine Adivasis
in Kokrajhar district.
June 18: BLT observes sixth 'foundation day' in Kokarajhar.
May 15: BLT executive committee reiterates that boundaries of the
proposed BTC should be in conformity with its demands. Also, it
says it may stop participating in the tripartite meetings.
May 6: Delhi tripartite meeting on the BTC between the BLT, Assam
government and Union government ends inconclusively.
May 4: BLT president Hagrama Basumatary is quoted as saying that
the BLT would rethink on its further participation in the tripartite
talks with the State and Union governments on the BTC issue.
March 23, 24: BLT leaders participate in the tripartite meeting
with the Assam government and the Union government. Decision taken
to allow the Assam government to formulate modalities for amendment
to the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution taken.
February 13: State Cabinet formally approves the formation of Bodoland
Territorial Council (BTC) under the modified Sixth Schedule of the
Constitution of India, with adequate and specific safeguards of
the rights of the non-Bodos.
February 12: Suspected BLT terrorists allegedly kill a businessman
at Basugaon in Kokarajhar. Victim's father was also seriously injured
in the incident.
February 10: Sub-Committee of the Assam State Cabinet meets leaders
of the BLTF at Dispur.
January 31: The Sonitpur 'district chairman' of the BLT, Shanti
Basumatary killed at Gajenpathar, under Gohpur police station limits,
by the suspected National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) terrorists.
- September 15: Decision taken to extend
cease-fire with the BLTF till January 21, 2002.
- March 20: 10 BLTF terrorists arrested
at Rani while collecting an extortion amount of Rs 80,000.
- December 23: Government of Bhutan blames
the BLTF for the massacre of its citizens in Assam.
- December 21: Sixteen civilians, including
ten Bhutanese traders, killed in separate incidents by suspected BLTF
terrorists in Barpeta, Darrang and Nalbari district.
- December 12: 11 BLTF terrorists killed
in an internecine clash with terrorists of the rival National Democratic
Front of Bodoland (NDFB) in Barpeta district.
- September 12: Suspension of operations
by security forces against the BLTF in Assam further extended for
one year following an agreement between the Central government, the
Assam Government and the BLTF. The extension comes into effect on
- March 29: Union government and BLTF
arrive at an agreement on 'ground rules for truce' and to set up a
Joint Monitoring Group to oversee the ceasefire.
- March 15: Union Home Minister L.K. Advani
informs Parliament that operations against the BLTF have been suspended
after the group agreed to abide by the Indian Constitution.
- October 11: BLTF terrorists kill 13
Assamese and Bengali-speaking people in Darrang district.
- August 15: BLTF terrorists kill seven
Note:Compiled from news reports and