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Weekly Assessments & Briefings
Volume 11, No. 14, October 8, 2012

Data and assessments from SAIR can be freely published in any form with credit to the South Asia Intelligence Review of the
South Asia Terrorism Portal


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Maoists: Growing Arsenal
Deepak Kumar Nayak
Research Assistant, Institute for Conflict Management

On August 29, 2012, the Jharkhand Police seized a consignment of arms and ammunition in the Silodar Forest, on the border of the Barachatti Police Station of Gaya District of Bihar and the Chouparan Police Station in Jharkhand. Two persons, Prafulla Malakar alias Pankaj and Anil Yadav, were arrested. Malakar, a conduit for supplying sophisticated arms to top Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist) leaders, was supposed to deliver the consignment to Anil Yadav, who is in charge of the Maoist armory in Bihar and Jharkhand. Yadav had come with INR 900,000 to take the delivery. The seizure included a US-made M-16 rifle and 14 cartridges of 5.56 mm, one 9-mm pistol of Italian make, and one light weight bullet-proof jacket worth INR 400,000, manufactured in the United Kingdom. Malakar later told interrogators that he had recently supplied four AK-47 rifles, two AK-56 rifles and three Self-Loading Rifles (SLRs), to Yadav.

Significantly, the M-16 rifle, manufactured by Colt Defense, carried a ‘U.S. Army property’ marking on it. Officials in the Union Ministry of Home Affairs (UMHA) claim this is confirmation of the opening of “the northeast arms supply route” to Left Wing Extremists (LWEs). The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has already been investigating the existence of such an arms supply chain for the Maoists. The Jharkhand arms seizure case has also been referred to the NIA. 

On July 11, 2011, the NIA registered a case arguing that the Manipur-based People’s Liberation Army (PLA) had formed an alliance with the CPI-Maoist for procuring arms and ammunition for the latter.   On May 21, 2012, the NIA filed a charge sheet in this regard before the special NIA court in Guwahati, against three arrested cadres of the PLA, N. Dilip Singh alias Wangba, Senjam Dhiren Singh alias Raghu and Kh. Arnold Singh alias Becon. Wangba was the self-styled ‘chief of external affairs’ of PLA, and was arrested during a raid in Paharganj in New Delhi on October 1, 2011. The other two accused were senior functionaries of PLA working under Wangba, and were arrested on February 4, 2012, from Kolkata, and 02 April, 2012, from Siliguri in West Bengal respectively. According to an NIA press release, the alliance between the CPI-Maoist and PLA was inked in 2008 after several meeting between the outfits since 2006. Subsequently, PLA established an office in Kolkata, which played a crucial role in coordinating the deals and meetings with the Maoists. Kh Arnold Singh alias Becon manned PLA’s Kolkata office.

Subsequent to the charge sheet, NIA arrested another three persons – two Maoist cadres and one PLA cadre – further unraveling the PLA – CPI-Maoist nexus. Pallab Borbora alias Profull, who allegedly played a ‘crucial’ role in ensuring the link between PLA and CPI-Maoist, was arrested on June 3, 2012. Ajay Chanda alias Indranil Chanda alias Raj (37) was the other Maoist arrested in Kolkata on April 21, 2012. Asem Ibotombi Singh alias Angou, PLA’s ‘external affairs secretary', was arrested on May 27, 2012, from Gopalpur in the Ganjam District of Odisha.

While Maoist arms procurement is cause for rising concern, the Maoists also run a very organized programme of manufacturing weapons. This received wide attention with the arrest of Sadanala Ramakrishna alias RK alias Techie Anna (64), a Maoist ‘central technical committee’ member, and four other Maoists, during coordinated raids in Kolkata and Mumbai. On February 29, 2012, Police arrested Ramakrishna and another Maoist, Dipak alias Prakash alias Kumar alias Rajesh Kumar Sahu (40), from Kolkata and, on information provided by them, raided a workshop at Belghoria in North 24 Parganas and arrested another three Maoists – Sukumar Mondal alias Bablu alias Samar (61), of Khardah in North 24 Parganas, Sambhu Charan Pal (60) of Singur in Hooghly, and Bapi Mudi alias Janaki (25) from Burdwan. Twenty sockets of rocket launchers, 25 cartridges, 2.5 kilograms of explosives, a photocopy of the design of a rocket launcher, a diary, Maoist literature and INR 500,000 were recovered from them. The next day, Police raided workshops in Mumbai which were clandestinely manufacturing weapons for Maoists and seized several castings, believed to be used by Maoist cadres for making hand grenades, rockets and other materials used for fabricating Rocket Launchers (RLs). Police arrested four Maoists – Asim Kumar Bhattacharya (63), Dinesh Wankhede (30), Suman Gawde (40) and Paru Patel (40) from Dombivali and over INR 2.3 million cash, laptops, pen drives and books on manufacturing weapons were recovered from them. Wankhede, Gawde and Patel were the area committee members of the Korchi dalam (armed squad) in Gadchiroli. Bhattacharya had given refuge to the trio since October 2011.

Developing on these arrests and recoveries, Police raided a transport company godown in Raipur on March 4, 2012, and recovered materials used for manufacturing mortars and RLs. It was suspected that the materials, including bolts and pipes, packed in about 69 wooden crates, had been sent by Maoists to Chhattisgarh. Further, on March 5, the Kolkata Police Special Task Force (STF) raided an apartment in Birati, on the eastern fringe of Kolkata, and seized INR 3.5 million in cash, instruments to manufacture RLs and some Maoist documents. Intelligence sources further revealed that the Kolkata and Mumbai workshops had, thus far, dispatched parts which could make not less than 3,000 rockets.

The NIA has taken over the case and has filed a charge sheet in this regard against Ramakrishna and the other four Maoists arrested with him in Kolkata, at the NIA Special Court, on August 23, 2012. According to the NIA, the arms manufacturing units which were neutralized by the West Bengal Police and the NIA in March, had been set up under the direct supervision of CPI-Maoist ‘general secretary’, Mupalla Lakshmana Rao alias Ganapathy. Investigations further revealed that the units assembled thousands of low-cost RLs, at a total estimated of INR 50 million, over the past three years. The unit acted as a conduit to procure components for manufacturing launchers from various companies in Kolkata and Mumbai on the pretext of making Boilers or other machines.

Crucially, the designs of the RLs and rockets were found to be vastly improved, as compared with the RLs seized in Andhra Pradesh (AP) and in Chennai (Ambattur) in 2006. The recoveries, then, had been made with the surrender of Thota Kumaraswamy alias Srinivasa Reddy alias Tech Madhu, on November 4, 2006. Tech Madhu was the mastermind behind two projects in Chennai in 2003 – ‘Rocket Launchers-I’ and ‘Rocket Launchers-II’. While RL–I was a pilot project designed to manufacture rockets with a launch pad, RL–II was for the development of shoulder-mounted RLs and rockets. Madhu subsequently disclosed that he had received INR 3.5 million from the outfit to manufacture 1,600 RLs in Ambattur, which were subsequently dispatched to Darsi (400), Kandukur (200) in Prakasham District, Mahbubnagar (600), and Kadapa (300) in AP, while the remaining were damaged during shipment. However, at that time, the Police failed to trace 200 RLs sent to Darsi, while the remaining consignments were recovered.

According to reports, the efficiency of the rockets seized after the surrender of Tech Madhu was estimated at about 60 per cent, while the RLs seized in March 2012 scored 90 per cent accuracy. A senior Police officer noted, “Until December, 2005 they were experimenting with rocket launchers by making modifications to their old designs. They prepared the latest model recently and the seized launchers are perhaps the first batch adopting the latest design.”

NIA investigations have revealed that the Maoist dream of procuring and developing RLs, rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and anti-personnel mines (APMs) can be traced back to 1994, when the erstwhile Communist Party of India – Marxist-Leninist – People’s War [CPI (ML) PW, also known as the People’s War Group, PWG] formed a Technical Development Committee (TDC) of Regional Committee status to coordinate the technical units producing light articles outside the field/combat zone. Maoist ‘central technical committee’ member Ramakrishna was instrumental in the formation of the TDC. Later, as the TDC failed to coordinate the units and to work up to expectations, a State Committee status body, the Central Technical Committee (CTC), was formed in July 2001, to work under the direct supervision of the Maoists’ Central Military Commission headed by Namballa Kesava Rao alias Ganganna. The CTC was later transformed or renamed as Technical Research Arms Manufacturing Unit (TRAM) in 2005.

TRAM consisted of five members headed by an elected secretary. While the secretary coordinated and strategized the supply of weapons, the remaining members concentrated on the development and production of these weapons. Investigations exposed that, after the formation of the CTC, from 2002 to 2006, technical units were established at several places including Pune, Rourkela, Indore, Bhopal and Bhubaneswar, under close supervision and direct guidance of Ramakrishna. Some CTC members were arrested from Bhopal and Rourkela by the SF personnel in January, 2007. Later, in 2008, Ramakrishna formed CTC teams in Kolkata, Thane near Mumbai, and in other locations in Maharashtra and, with their help, started procuring raw materials and finished components for weapons.

Some of the components were processed in local workshops established for this purpose by team members, while others were processed in commercial workshops by mechanics and workmen who were provided with designs and detailed diagrams of samples of certain parts of the weapon. The finished products, assembly tools and related items were being regularly sent to Raipur in Chhattisgarh. From Raipur they were transported to the forests of Dandakaranya or Abhujmaad, where they were reportedly assembled into complete arms by mobile assembly units.

Further, Ramakrishna also disclosed that the Maoists had added 'Improvised Rocket Assisted Mortars' (IRAM) to their arsenal. IRAM 107mm was first used by the Iraqi insurgents by using elevated vehicles to launch the rockets, while the Maoists developed a shoulder-firing mechanism by reducing the bore of the launch tube and the length of the device.

The Maoists also manufacture a range of ‘country-made’ weapons. Intelligence reports claimed that nearly 500 arms manufacturing units had been established by the Maoists in Chhattisgarh alone. These manufacturing units are small in size, often run in huts and cottages deep inside forests, but were strategically located to facilitate a smooth supply of weapons and ammunition to armed squads. The presence of such arms-manufacturing units had been reported from Abhujmaad, Kanker, Nagari, Sihaba, Sitanadi, Chura, Gariaband, Debbhog, Ammamora, Charraunda, Rasela, Komakhana, Naram, Khati, Kasekara, and Tuhulu areas in the Bastar and Mahasamund regions.

The Maoists have also been found in possession of SLRs as well as AK-series and INSAS rifles. Further, their expertise in fabricating and detonating Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has already been causing huge losses to the Security Forces (SFs). The Maoists’ arms-kitty includes a range of weapons of varying sophistication, including .12 bore guns, .303 and 8 mm rifles, grenades, grenade launchers, 2-inch mortars, pressure mines, directional mines, Claymore mines, Light Machine Guns (LMGs), Stenguns, 30 mm Carbines, Smooth-Bore Breech-Loading (SBBL) and Double-Bore Breech-Loading (DBBL) guns, as well as ‘tamanchas’ – crude pipe guns – and booby traps.

Apart from procuring and manufacturing weapons, snatching weapons from the SFs has been an established practice and major source for the Maoists. However, numbers of weapons snatched by Maoists in recent years have shown a extremely uneven trend.

Arms snatched by Maoists: 2007 - 2011

Total no. of arms snatched
Source: MHA, GoI, New Delhi, *December 31, 2011

The Maoists are having an estimated 46,600 armed cadres – 8,600 ‘hardcore’ armed squad members and 38,000 jan militia carrying rudimentary weapons and providing logistics support to the core group of the People’s Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA).

The Maoists’ search of arms has been a long journey from snatching of weapons from the SFs to developing expertise in fabricating and detonating IEDs, and the fabrication of rockets and RLs. Recently, addressing the annual meet of Directors General and Inspectors General of Police from State and Central Police Forces at New Delhi on September 6, 2012, Union Minister for Home Affairs, Sushil Kumar Shinde warned, “Naxalism continues to pose a significant challenge. There are indicators about increase in the number of trained and armed cadres, reorganization of military potential for formation of new battalions.”

Deception has been an elemental tactic of the Maoists. The decline in the intensity of Maoist violence should not be misjudged as an index of Maoist capacities. It is evident that the process of a build-up of armed manpower and of weaponry of increasing sophistication has been sustained by the Maoists, and the SFs will, eventually, have to contend with this augmented force.

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Arunachal Pradesh: Loose Ends
Veronica Khangchian
Research Associate, Institute for Conflict Management

On October 1, 2012, 12 Assam Regiment and the Arunachal Pradesh State Police, in a joint operation, arrested seven cadres of the ‘newly formed’ United People's Democratic Front (UPDF), including its ‘commander-in-chief’ Sumona Munglang, from Mimi village near Namsai in Lohit District, a sensitive area bordering Myanmar and China. The joint operation to ‘eliminate’ the outfit had started two months ago. Arms, ammunition and cash worth INR 186,600, was also recovered. With these arrests, Security Forces (SFs) claimed, UPDF had been ‘wiped out’ in the State.

However, after his arrest, Munglang disclosed that 10 members of his outfit were still at large.

Nevertheless, the UPDF has come under tremendous pressure, with ‘all’ of its leaders either arrested or having surrendered. These include:

September 10, 2012: SFs arrested three UPDF cadres in Lohit District during separate operations. Nakkya Chakma, ‘second-in-command’ of the UPDF, was arrested in an encounter at Emphum Village under the Chongkham Circle of the District. SFs arrested two UPDF militants at Bamchuk Village under Namsai circle in Lohit District and Joypur Village under Diyun circle in Changlang District, respectively.

September 8: A joint team of the Lohit District Police and Special Investigation Team (SIT), Itanagar, arrested the 'finance secretary' and third in line of leadership of UPDF, Hemchandra Barphukan aka R. Gohain (42), from the Chowkham area of Namsai Sub-division in Lohit District. Gohain was wanted in several cases of extortion and under the Arms Act, registered in Lohit and Changlang Districts.

August 24: Four linkmen of the UPDF, identified as Anil Chakma, Chowpinto Thaman, Sanjiv Singh and Arvind Singh were arrested in connection with extorting money from businessmen at Bijoypur in Itanagar.

April 28: Assam Rifles personnel arrested four UPDF cadres (aged between 19 and 25 years) from Manabhum area in Changlang District. The militants were arrested from Maitri Village under Diyun Police Station, where they had forcibly taken shelter in the house of a Chakma widow. The cadres visited the village to serve extortion note to local businessmen in the area.

In another setback on September 6, 2012, three top UPDF cadres, Jan Panyok, Halinda Manglai and Sanjiv Munglang, the close aides of the outfit’s chief, surrendered before the Deputy Commissioner, Commanding Officer of 12 Assam Regiment and Superintendent of Police, Lohit District.

UPDF has been repeatedly involved in extortion of huge sums of money in Lohit and Changlang Districts, as well as in cases of firing, abduction and intimidation, over the past year. The latest reported incident was on September 12, 2012, when the manager of Sati Tea Estate in Lohit District, C.N. Pandey, was abducted from his residence at Piyom under the Namsai Subdivision by UPDF cadres. He was, however, rescued by the Arunachal Pradesh Police on September 15.

Earlier, on April 12, 2012, UPDF had threatened those involved in the illegal coal, timber and stone trade in Lohit and Changlang Districts. Police said the threats were meant to extort money from traders.

Arunachal Pradesh, a vast and sparsely populated region covering 83,743 square kilometers with just 1.38 million people, has long been an island of relative peace in India’s troubled Northeast. For some years, an ‘overflow’ of violence from neighboring states had come to some areas in the State, but ‘indigenous’ insurgencies have also been provoked by some external players. The Arunachal Dragon Force (ADF) thus came into existence in 2001, but was neutralized shortly thereafter. The UPDF was formed some time in 2011 by its 'commander-in-chief' Sumona Munglang, who was once a sharpshooter in the Dawood Ibrahim gang, which was involved in the Mumbai bombings of 1993 – the country’s single worst terrorist attack – and which continues to dominate organized crime in Mumbai from its permanent headquarters in Karachi, Pakistan. Munlang is a resident of the Tonkonala area under the Namsai Police Station in Lohit District. According to the Police, UPDF operates mainly in Sunpura, Chowkham, Wakro, Namsai, Mahadevpur and Piyong circles in Lohit District; and in Diyun, Bordumsa and Vijaynagar circles of Changlang District. Cadres receive preliminary arms and guerilla warfare training in the Manabhum Reserve Forest spread between the two Districts. A few cadres have also been sent to Myanmar for advanced arms training. Police sources indicated that Munlang started the group with about 12 cadres, but increased its strength of about 70 members, at peak. The group is believed to have strong linkages with the Anti-Talks Faction of United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA-ATF) and with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K).

UPDF’s formation and objectives remain ambiguous. According to some reports, Munlang simply renamed the Tai-Khamti Liberation Front (TKLF), a little known militant group, while others suggest that TKLF joined the UPDF after its formation. Munlang was part of the ADF, and was arrested in 2002 by the Arunachal Pradesh Police. He managed to escape and later went to Mumbai, where he joined Dawood’s gang. He returned to Arunachal Pradesh and started the UPDF. Munglang is said to have disappeared after killing a comrade in the ADF, identified as Chow Nomee Namchoom.

Some reports suggest that that the UPDF’s objective is to secure an Autonomous District Council (ADC) under the sixth schedule of the Constitution in nine Circles of the Lohit and Changlang Districts dominated by the Tai-Khamti tribe; others indicate that the group seeks the creation of a separate ‘Manabhum District’ comprising these nine administrative circles.

Though the UPDF has now suffered a tremendous setback, concerns remains, the most significant being the group’s links with the Assam-based ULFA-ATF. Sources suggest that there is definite information of the sharing of funds between ULFA-ATF and UPDF. Rocket Shyam aka Gojen Khek, originally from Arunachal Pradesh, a key member of the ULFA-ATF, was reportedly instrumental in maintaining links between ULFA-ATF and UPDF.

Reports in September 2012 indicate increased activity of ULFA-ATF militants from camps located in the Manabhum and Kharsang areas of Changlang District, creating major concerns among the SFs. The reports adds that ULFA-ATF had recently set up several camps in the two areas bordering Tinsukia (Assam), with help from an NSCN-K unit under the command of Rohendra Moran, a former office-bearer of the All Assam Moran Student’s Union (AAMSU). The NSCN-K was providing logistical support to ULFA cadres, with help from local Naga villagers.

ULFA-ATF is currently being actively supported by China. The Centre has articulated its concerns over ULFA-ATF’s leader Paresh Baruah being "handled" by China. A top security source associated with northeast affairs thus stated, "Paresh Baruah is more than just a frequent visitor to China. He is being handled by China and it is understood that he gets shelter in the country." Paresh Baruah, who was once sheltering in Bangladesh, is now believed to be somewhere in China or on the Myanmar-China border. Paresh Baruah is also known to be procuring weapons from China, a major portion of which have been sold to the Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist).

Interestingly, on September 22, 2012, ULFA-ATF warned the Yuva Morcha (Youth Wing) of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) against protesting against China on the 50th anniversary of the Sino-Indian War of 1962 in October at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh, claiming that such demonstrations could ‘increase tension’ between Assam and China. The BJP youth wing is slated to hold a rally in mid-October to pay tribute to the martyrs of the Sino-Indian War in the border areas of Arunachal Pradesh and China. In the statement, ULFA-ATF declared that Assam faces no danger from China as long as it doesn't do anything to instigate tension between the two countries.

Earlier, on March 31, 2012, ULFA-ATF had denounced anti-China protests by Tibetan refugees in Assam, and called upon the people of Assam not to allow such anti-China activities as ULFA needed a powerful friend like China to lead the people’s struggle to a ‘just conclusion’. Tibetans observed the 53rd Tibetan National Uprising Day in Guwahati on March 10, commemorating their first massive rebellion against the Chinese occupation in 1959. Paresh Barua further stated, “India is treating Assam ruthlessly, we should build bridge with China for our own safety and prosperity.” Justifying its Chinese alliance, ULFA declared, “We are fully aware that to bring our struggle to its just conclusion…. it is natural we should seek friends in international arena. We found a friend in Bhutanese establishment and subsequently with Bangladesh too.” ULFA was ejected from Bhutan in 2003, and from Bangladesh in 2009.

Baruah has also ‘openly opposed’ India building missile bases in Assam, arguing that this could anger the Chinese and thus impact adversely on the Assamese people.

These concerns are compounded further by the increasing activities of the CPI-Maoist in the wider northeast region, and specifically in Arunachal Pradesh as well.

The SFs have uncovered vital information regarding the CPI-Maoist’s plans to set up guerrilla zones in the hills in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in order to strengthen their ‘arms wing’ in the region. SFs operating in this area have been alerted. Significantly, on July 19, 2012, security agencies discovered the ‘blueprint’ of the Maoist action plan for the Northeastern region. According to their road map, the Maoists have plans to form a ‘strategic zone’ comprising the hilly terrain of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao Districts of Assam and the Dibang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh.

Sources also indicate that the Maoists have already recruited some youth from Assam and a few Khamti boys from Arunachal Pradesh.

The National Investigation Agency (NIA) also found, during the interrogation of Indranil Chanda aka Raj, a key Maoist leader in charge of the North East (arrested from Kolkata on April 21, 2012), that he had been moving across several parts of the North East, setting up ‘base camps’.

Significantly, on July 25, 2012, SFs arrested three Maoists from Kaupatani village under Mahadevpur Police Station, Lekang Circle, in Lohit District. Earlier, on August 17, 2011, a joint Police team from Arunachal Pradesh and Assam had arrested five cadres of the CPI-Maoist from the Mahadevpur area under the Namsai Circle of Lohit District. These were the first Maoist arrests in Namsai, which is located close to the dense Manabhum Reserve Forest. These arrests had prompted the then Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram to describe Assam as a new theatre of Maoist activities, with a spill over into Arunachal and Manipur. Underground elements have been using the dense Manabhum forest as a passage to camps in Myanmar, across the porous Indo-Myanmar border.

On March 29, 2012, the Assam and Arunachal Pradesh State Police constituted a joint team to carry out anti-insurgency operations along the interstate border in the Tinsukia District of Assam and three Districts of Arunachal Pradesh – Lohit, Changlang and the Lower Dibang Valley. ULFA-ATF and CPI-Maoist are reportedly present in these areas.

Arunachal Pradesh had witnessed the overflow of the NSCN – NSCN-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM) and NSCN-K factions -  and ULFA activities in the past. According to partial data compiled by the South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP), there were at least 10 clashes between the two NSCN factions in Arunachal Pradesh during the period 2001-2012, resulting in 48 killings and leaving at least 17 injured. In 2012, the State recorded two killings in a factional clash between the NSCN groups, on January 8, 2012, when NSCN-K militants attacked an NSCN-IM camp in the Chasha village in Tirap District. The State has also seen the formation of another Naga outfit, the Arunachal Naga Liberation Front (ANLF), formed in May 2010. The ANLF, however, was formally merged with NSCN-K on June 19, 2011.

Union Home Ministry investigations have also uncovered the involvement of extremist formations in illegal mining in Arunachal Pradesh. The report, prepared after a visit of senior Home Ministry officials to the 45-kilometre coal-rich stretch of Changlang District, noted that insurgent groups such as the NSCN were engaged in illegal mining at Namchik Namphuk, the only coal block allotted to the State Government. An October 6, 2012, report notes that insurgent groups in the District had been illegally mining coal, using the proceeds to buy sophisticated weapons from arms dealers based in Thailand and China.

According to SATP data, insurgency related fatalities in the State during the period 2007-2012 totaled 76 (data till October 7, 2012), including of 2 civilians, 3 SF personnel and 71 militants. The maximum number of killings occurred in 2007 and 2011. ULFA was involved in all the incidents of 2007, in which 16 militants, two civilians and three SF personnel were killed. The 2011 incidents involved fratricidal strife between NSCN-K and NSCN-IM. In just one incident, on the night of February 24-25, 30 NSCN-IM and five NSCN-K cadres were killed in a factional clash. Another two incidents involved ULFA-ATF, in which six of its cadres were killed in an encounter with SFs. In the most recent incident, on September 14, 2012, one ULFA-ATF militant was killed and another injured in an encounter with the Army at Insushi village, Nangtao, under the Namsai Circle in Lohit District.

Despite dramatic gains by the SFs, a multiplicity of threats persist in Arunachal Pradesh, long a haven of peace in this troubled region. The remnants of the UPDF, backed by ULFA-ATF and NSCN-K, as well as the increased activities of the Maoist in the State, have kept militancy alive across Tirap, Changlang and Lohit, even as these groups explore possibilities of expansion into other areas of the State. Unless these ‘loose end’ are tied off by determined counter-insurgency operations, Arunachal Pradesh may well see increasing troubles over the coming years.


Weekly Fatalities: Major Conflicts in South Asia
October 1-7, 2012



Security Force Personnel







Jammu and Kashmir








Left-wing Extremism






West Bengal


Total (INDIA)








Khyber Pakhtunkhwa





Provisional data compiled from English language media sources.


6,000 square kilometers area in Chhattisgarh and three other states still under Maoist control, says outgoing CRPF Chief K Vijay Kumar: The then Chief of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) K Vijay Kumar said on September 29 that 6,000 square kilometers of area, mostly in south Chhattisgarh, and adjoining areas of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, continue to remain almost completely out of bounds for the Security Forces (SFs). He, however, said with SFs have gained control over more than 5,000 square kilometers area in the last two years. Indian Express, October 1, 2012.

Radical Sikh outfits under NIA lens: The September 30 attack on Lieutenant General K. S. Brar in London (UK) has prompted the National Investigation Agency (NIA) to take a closer look at the pro-Khalistan activism. The NIA is to investigate fund-raising by radical Sikh organizations supposedly working for welfare of incarcerated Sikh militants, as well as cyber sites openly promoting the Khalistan cause. Times of India, October 5, 2012.

BSF forms new Commando Forces to combat terrorist activities in Rajasthan and Gujarat: The Border Security Force (BSF) has formed a new anti-terrorist commando force "Desert Scorpion" to deal with incidents of cross border intrusion in Rajasthan. To combat terrorist incidents in the Sir Creek sea areas of Gujarat, BSF's water wing has also formed a 'Crocodile Commando Force. Times of India, October 1, 2012.

Naxalism a result of an oversight of statutes, says Supreme Court: Emphasising on validation of rights of tribals and forest-dwellers over the forest lands, the Supreme Court has said that Naxalism [Left Wing Extremism (LWE)] was a result of an oversight of constitutional provisions relating to administration of schedule areas and tribes of the country. "Nobody looks at Schedules V and VI of the Constitution and the result is Naxalism. Urbanites are ruling the nation. Even several Union of India counsels are oblivious of these provisions under the Constitution," said a Bench led by Justice A K Patnaik. Indian Express, October 3, 2012.

26/11 convict Ajmal Kasab wrote to Pakistan High Commissioner twice seeking legal help: Lashkar-Toiba (LeT) militant Ajmal Kasab, convicted for the November 26, 2008 (26/11) Mumbai (Maharashtra) terrorist attacks, wanted to meet the Pakistani High Commissioner in India after his arrest in Mumbai on the day of the incident. He also two wrote letters to the High Commissioner seeking legal help. Times of India, October 1, 2012.


Political forces agree to new CA election but differ on poll Government: All political forces represented in the erstwhile Constituent Assembly (CA) agree that the country needs fresh CA elections, but they appeared clearly divided over who should lead the Government that will conduct the elections. The development took place at an all-party meeting held on October 2, at the call of the four major political forces- Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-M), Nepal Congress (NC), Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist Leninist (CPN-UML), United Democratic Madheshi Front (UDMF) - to seek parties' views for resolving the current political impasse. Republica, October 3, 2012.


40 civilians and two militants among 43 persons killed during the week in Sindh: Two Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) activists were among 15 persons killed in separate incidents of violence in Karachi, the provincial capital of Sindh, on October 7.

Six Pakistan People's Party (PPP) workers and a reporter of a TV channel were killed and 10 others, including three reporters and administrator of Khairpur Taluka Municipal Administration, injured when a group of unidentified assailants opened fire on a public meeting in Sadoro Janwari village in Khairpur District.

Three persons, including an activist of Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) and an active cadre of Sunni Tehreek (ST), were shot dead in separate incidents of violence in Karachi on October 5.

Five persons, including a suspect, a Policeman and an Imambargah trustee, were killed in separate acts of violence in Karachi on October 4.

Three tortured bullet-riddled dead bodies of MQM activists were found from various parts of Karachi on October 3.

Four people were killed in various incidents of violence in Karachi on October 2.

Six persons, including two activists of MQM, were shot dead in separate acts of violence in Karachi. Daily Times; Dawn; The News; Tribune; Central Asia Online; The Nation; The Frontier Post; Pakistan Today; Pakistan Observer, October 2-8, 2012.

18 militants and five civilians among 25 persons killed during the week in FATA: Five members of a peace militia were killed and seven others injured in militants' attack in the Bara tehsil (revenue unit) of Khyber Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) on October 6.

Six militants and one soldier were killed in exchange of fire when militants from Afghanistan side attacked a border security post in Gursal area in Mohmand Agency on October 5.

At least seven militants were killed as troops retaliated after a landmine blast killed a security officer in the Mamozai area of Orakzai Agency on October 1.

At least four militants were killed when a United States (US) drone fired four missiles targeting a vehicle in Khwaidadkhel area of Mir Ali tehsil in North Waziristan Agency. Daily Times; Dawn; The News; Tribune; Central Asia Online; The Nation; The Frontier Post; Pakistan Today; Pakistan Observer, October 2-8, 2012.

80 new missing persons' cases reported across Pakistan: The Supreme Court-appointed two members Commission of Inquiry on Enforced Disappearances, headed by Justice (retired) Javed Iqbal, disclosed on October 2 that 80 more cases of disappearance had been reported to it during the past three months. The announcement contrasts sharply with a claim Government officials made in September during their meetings with a United Nations (UN) mission on enforced disappearances that the number of such incidents had dropped sharply over recent months.

JUI-S leader announces USD 200,000 bounty for anti-Islam filmmaker: During a Difa-e-Pakistan (DPC) rally in Peshawar on October 1, a former Pakistani legislator and General Secretary of Jama'at Ulema-e-Islam-Sami (JUI-S), Ikramullah Shahid, announced a USD 200,000 bounty for the maker of the anti-Islam film released in the US. "We will award USD 200,000 to anyone who kills the filmmaker," he said. Tribune, October 1, 2012.

TTP decline to 'provide security' to PTI peace march: The Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) declined on October 5 to provide security to a Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaaf (PTI) peace march to Kotkai town of South Waziristan Agency in FATA and declared that PTI Chairman Imran Khan was a westernised and secular man. TTP 'spokesman' Ehsanullah Ehsan said in a statement that the TTP was an ideological organisation based on fundamentals of Islam and performed all activities in accordance with the teachings of Islam. Dawn, October 6, 2012.

Peshawar High Court asks Government to give list of detention centres in KP and FATA: The Peshawar High Court on October 4 directed the Defence and Interior Ministries to produce lists of all detention facilities operated and maintained by intelligence agencies, including Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Military Intelligence (MI) and intelligence wing of Frontier Corps, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). The Court took exception to the slow pace of recovery of the 'missing persons'. Dawn, October 5, 2012.

No military operation in Balochistan, says Interior Minister Rehman Malik: Rejecting the allegations levelled by Balochistan National Party (BNP) chief Sardar Akhtar Mengal against the Government, Interior Minister Rehman Malik on September 30 said no army operation was being conducted in the Province. He reiterated that foreign elements were involved in the unrest in the province and that he had sufficient evidence that could be presented before the BNP chief.

Meanwhile, Balochistan Chief Minister Nawab Aslam Raisani while talking to Dutch Ambassador Hugo Gajus Scheltema in Islamabad on October 4 said that no operation is being conducted in the Province, dismissing such claims as sheer propaganda. Daily Times, October 1, 2012; Dawn, October 5, 2012.

Dawood-Haqqani-ISI nexus in Pakistan, reveals Gretchen Peters of US Military Academy: Gretchen Peters of the United States (US) Military Academy at West Point's Combating Terrorism Centre (CTC) on October 2 told US Congress of the nexus between the criminal enterprise Dawood Ibrahim company, the Haqqani Network and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in Pakistan. Peters, testifying before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Terrorism on 'Combating the Haqqani Terrorist Network', said, "It is well known that the Haqqanis are the most ruthless and violent faction of the Taliban and also that they have the capacity to launch spectacular attacks. They have hosted, facilitated and networked with all sorts of bad actors around the region and also criminal networks like the Dawood Ibrahim Company…They do work for the Pakistan Government -- Pakistan's ISI, and they will assassinate people around Afghanistan." Rediff, October 2, 2012.

No political cell working in ISI, Defence Ministry tells Supreme Court: The Defence Ministry in its reply submitted to the Supreme Court on October 3 stated that there was no political cell in the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). The three-member bench Court headed by Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry is hearing the 1996 petition filed by Asghar Khan accusing the ISI of financing politicians in the 1990 elections by giving PKR 140 million to them to create the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI) and prevent Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP) from winning the polls. Daily Times, October 4, 2012.


UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon welcomes positive developments in Sri Lanka: United Nations (UN) Secretary General Ban Ki Moon on October 2 welcomed the positive developments in Sri Lanka, including the complete resettlement of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and the closure of the resettlement village at Menik Farm, holding Provincial Council elections in the Eastern Province, steps taken to reach out to civil society. He also welcomed the action plan to implement the recommendations of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC). Daily News, October 4, 2012.

The South Asia Intelligence Review (SAIR) is a weekly service that brings you regular data, assessments and news briefs on terrorism, insurgencies and sub-conventional warfare, on counter-terrorism responses and policies, as well as on related economic, political, and social issues, in the South Asian region.

SAIR is a project of the Institute for Conflict Management and the South Asia Terrorism Portal.

South Asia Intelligence Review [SAIR]

K. P. S. Gill

Dr. Ajai Sahni

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