Muttahida Quomi Mahaz, Terrorist Group
(Previously known as Mohajir Quomi Movement)
The most potent threat
to Pakistan’s internal security in the late Nineteen Eighties and early
Nineties was posed by militia from the Mohajir community. Originally
formed as the Mohajir Quomi Movement (MQM), it is now split into two
factions. The faction led by the founder Altaf Hussain was renamed Muttahida
Quomi Mahaz and is commonly referred to as MQM (A). A breakaway faction,
created in 1992, retains the original name Mohajir Quomi Movement -
with the suffix Haqiqi which means real - and is commonly referred to
as MQM (H). The two factions have been responsible
for several incidents of urban terrorism even as the MQM (A) participates
in Pakistan’s electoral process. After a series of strong measures taken
by the State in 1998, the MQM (A) has largely reoriented itself into
an exclusively political outfit. In its latest display of clout in Mohajir
dominated areas, it called for a boycott of local body elections held
in July 2001 and ensured a low turnout in areas dominated by its cadre.
The MQM sought to portray
itself, in its initial years as an organisation of Mohajirs. This ethnic
term refers to refugees from India who settled in Karachi and other
urban centres of Sindh province. They now constitute the largest segment
in Sindh’s urban population. Largely natives of India’s Bihar and Uttar
Pradesh provinces, this community maintains a distinct identity for
itself. In the immediate post-partition period, the community formed
one of the most influential lobbies in Pakistan having been closely
associated with the movement for the country and its founder Mohammad
Ali Jinnah. With the increasing power of the military over the State
apparatus, the community found its pre-eminent position being increasingly
usurped by the Punjabi dominated military-bureaucratic formation that
effectively ruled Pakistan since Gen. Ayub’s coup in 1958.
The first assertions of
a distinct ethnic identity were made by the All Pakistan Mohajir Students
Organisation" (APMSO) founded by Altaf Hussain in Karachi in 1978. Altaf
Hussain went on, in 1984, to form the MQM. For two years, the outfit
maintained a low profile reportedly concentrating on building its cadre
base in Karachi and Hyderabad. It came on the national stage with a
massive rally in Karachi on August 8. Ever since it has been a major
actor in Pakistan’s politics even as it maintains an armed cadre that
has repeatedly indulged in urban terrorism. In 1992, going against the
civilian political executive, the army reportedly encouraged a split
in the outfit helping create the MQM (H) under the leadership of Afaq
Ahmed and Aamir Khan, who were earlier top members of MQM’s armed wing.
To disguise itself as a broad social formation, the outfit dropped the
term Mohajir from its title and renamed itself the Muttahida Quomi Mahaz
(United National Front)
Violence has always accompanied
the outfit’s political activities. It began with the first public meeting
on August 8, 1986, which was accompanied by aerial firing, street violence
and damage to public property by participants. Two months later, on
October 31, rioting in Karachi and Hyderabad, another MQM (A) stronghold,
left 12 persons dead. Altaf Hussain and ten other leaders of the outfit
were arrested on November 2 that year which only increased the street
violence in Mohajir dominated cities. On December 14, the outfit’s secretary
general Dr Imran Farooq claimed that the situation can come under control
only if Altaf Hussain is released. Almost on cue, violence flared up
that night and the next day leaving 120 persons dead in Karachi.
Violence continued, allegedly
perpetrated by MQM, despite the outfit entering into an alliance with
the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) in 1988 and participating in a coalition
government at the Federal level. The two parties had signed a 54 point
agreement commonly known as the Karachi Accord just before the elections
held in December that year. News reports suggested that most violence
was between supporters of the MQM and the Jiye Sindh Movement, an organisation
purpotedly fighting the cause of native Sindhis. Another rival with
which the MQM frequently indulged in violent clashes was the Punjabi-Pukhtoon
Ittehad (PPI), an outfit comprising of armed extremists from the Pukhtoon
and Punjabi communities. Random attacks by armed activists of the warring
groups on unarmed civilians were the major cause for casualties. In
May 1989, the MQM walked out of the PPP led coalition in Sindh and five
months later, from the federal government, accusing the PPP of failing
to honour its promises outlined in the Karachi Accord.
The press to was a victim
of the MQM’s terror strategies. Several newspapers, including the Dawn,
Jang, identified by the outfit as non-symphathetic to the ‘movement’
were targeted for enforced boycotts.
Following reports of an
imminent army crackdown on the outfit, Altaf Hussain left for UK on
January 1, 1992 and has been in exile since. Despite the flight of its
leader, the outfit’s terrorist arm continued to operate until 1998.
Its political arm too faded into insignificance after the October 1999
coup in Pakistan.
The mid nineties in urban
Sindh was marked by consistent strike calls from the MQM which included
an announcement in July 1995 that weekly strikes on Fridays and Saturdays
would be observed. Most MQM strikes were accompanied by violence leaving
scores dead in their wake.
The outfit’s leadership,
particularly Altaf Hussain, has been described by most analysts, as
opportunists. The political platforms adopted by the outfit have been
forwarded as evidence. After striking a deal, termed as the Karachi
Accord, with Benazir Bhutto’s PPP, the outfit switched alliances and
teamed up with Nawaz Sharief’s, Pakistan Muslim League (PML) in 1992.
In Pakistan’s predominantly two party set-up, MQM which has time and
again proved itself as the third largest political force, has swung
between the two dominant parties and joined several ruling coalitions
at the federal level and in Sindh. The elected local bodies in Karachi
and Hyderabad have been overwhelmingly dominated by the MQM (A).
May 15: An Anti-terrorism court in
Karachi sentences two MQM-A activists to life for killing a police
personnel on July 21, 1998 in Liaquatabad.
May 2: 300 MQM-A workers are arrested
from various locations in Karachi, Hyderabad and other cities throughout
April 26: Two top leaders of the MQM-A
are killed by unidentified assailants in Karachi.
April 22: A Sindh court exonerates
11 MQM-A activists, including former Sindh Governor and two former
Members of the Sindh Provincial Assembly (MPAs), of all charges
in the April 24, 1995-Mir Garden case. Three persons were killed
and two police personnel injured in that incident.
April 19: MQM-A chief Altaf Hussain
demands a new Constitution for Pakistan.
April 13: MQM-A chief Altaf Hussain
urges President Pervez Musharraf to grant ‘complete’ autonomy to
smaller provinces, including Sindh.
April 9: An MQM-A activist is killed
by unidentified gunmen in North Nazimabad, Karachi.
January 7: Two unidentified assailants
kill an activist of the MQM-A in Karachi.
December 28: An MQM-A activist is killed
in Shah Faisal Colony, Karachi.
December 9: Altaf Hussain claims that
missing party workers reportedly arrested by law enforcement agencies
have finally been killed.
November 22: The brothers of a former
MQM-A cadre, in a revenge attack kill, two MQM-A activists. They
attack the MQM-A cadres after they find the bullet-riddled body
of their abducted brother in Baldia Town, Karachi.
November 11: Unidentified gunmen kill
a former sector ‘commander’ of the MQM-A in Jauharabad, Karachi.
October 10: MQM-A chief Altaf Hussain
says his party condemns all forms of terrorism and killings of innocent
people, whether it is in the USA or in any other part of the world.
October 2: An MQM-A cadre is killed
in an encounter with Karachi Police.
September 28: An MQM-A activist is
killed and another injured in an armed attack on Jamshed Quarters
September 26: Nine MQM-A activists
are injured in two bomb blasts in Karachi.
September 17: MQM-A Chief Altaf Hussain,
in a statement from his London headquarters, says people of Pakistan
in general, and Sindh in particular, must not "get distracted on
the propaganda by the so-called religious and Jihadi organisations."
September 5: A leader and 14 activists
of the MQM-A are acquitted in different cases by the courts in Karachi.
August 23: MQM-A deputy convener Shaikh
Liaquat Hussain claims in Karachi that the party’s workers are being
arrested and tortured.
August 22: Three MQM-A cadres are arrested
in Karachi in separate cases.
June 6: MQM-A convenor Imran Farooq
appeals to the Supreme Court to take suo motto action on
a threat levelled by the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) to assassinate MQM-A
chief Altaf Hussain.
June 3: MQM-A members of the suspended
Sindh Assembly oppose the Federal government’s on-going arms recovery
June 1: A former MQM-A activist is
killed by unidentified gunmen in Liaquatabad, Karachi
May 31: Sindh High Court acquits nine
MQM-A activists in former Governor Hakim Saeed assassination case
following an appeal against their conviction pronounced earlier
by an Anti-Terrorism Court.
May 22: MQM-A co-ordination committee
convenor Imran Farooq claims in Karachi that the Inter Services
Intelligence (ISI) is indulging in ‘baseless propaganda’ against
Altaf Hussain, and implicating him in the May 18-killing of Sunni
Tehreek chief Salim Qadri.
May 8: MQM-A deputy cnvenor Khalid
Maqbool Siddiqi claims in Karachi that state agencies were responsible
for the May 7-Karachi bomb blast in which one person was killed
and nine others injured.
March 24: Karachi anti-terrorism court
acquits a former Provincial Legislator of the MQM-A and nine other
party activists in a case on which a police personnel was killed
on July 28, 1999 in the city.
February 28: MQM-H chief Afaq Ahmad
claims in Karachi that Interior Minister Moinuddin Haider is "patronising
the London-based ‘terrorist group’.
February 23: MQM-A chief Altaf Hussain
offers to hold a dialogue with the Federal government.
February 20: An MQM-A leader is acquitted
in two cases by two different additional district and sessions courts
February 17: Two MQM-A activists arrested
earlier on October 9, 2000, in Gulistan-i-Jauhar, are sentenced
to death by an ant-terrorism court in Karachi for anti-national
January 3: Senior MQM-A activist of
Ranchor Lines, Karachi, Mohammad Shoaib, is arrested.
January 2: MQM-A chief Altaf Hussain
and 13 associates declared 'absconders' by Karachi court.
December 22: An additional district
and sessions court in Karachi declares MQM-A chief Altaf Hussain
and three other activists absconders in a case pertaining to the
killing of two persons during an MQM-A sponsored strike in Karachi
in June 1995.
December 20: A former MQM-A member
and his brother were killed by two armed assailants in Liaquatabad,
December 15: Five MQM-A activists acquitted
by a Karachi court in a case regarding an attack on police personnel
during a shootout in Liaquatabad in 1998.
December 8: Two MQM-A activists are
killed by unidentified gunmen in Karachi.
November 11: Six MQM-A activists are
arrested from Sukkur for their alleged involvement in the November
November 6: Bomb explodes at the Karachi
marketing office of the Jang group of newspapers. MQM-A cadre
Iqbal Macha is prime suspect for the attack.
October 29: MQM-A demands amendment
to the Constitution of Pakistan.
October 25: An MQM-A activist is killed
by unidentified gunmen in Karachi.
October 2: News report says 1,105 activists
and supporters of MQM-A are in official custody and a committee
would review all the cases.
Government calls for a report
from the High Commission in India on the visit of an MQM- A delegation
to that country.
September 21: An MQM-A worker is killed
at a Karachi playground.
July 9: An MQM-A activist in police
custody, in Karachi, states that the top-leadership of the party
has directed him to kill 28 fellow cadres for their suspected involvement
in various crimes.
July 4: A Karachi court issues arrest
warrants against an MQM-A woman leader, Nasreen Jalil, and some
other activists on charges of rioting and obstructing police in
performing their duties.
March 30: MQM-A convenor Imran Farooq
alleges that a Pakistan Army officer had formed groups in connivance
with Karachi police to kill MQM-A cadres.
February 28: Widespread violence is
reported in Karachi following a strike call given by Jeay Sindh
Quami Mahaz and the MQM-A outfit to protest sacking of staff from
the state-run Pakistan Steel as well as for the police ill-treating
January 17: Nine persons are killed
and 25 others injured in a bomb explosion in Karachi. Police blame
the MQM-A for the act and claim that 16 terrorists linked to the
outfit have been arrested. MQM (A) denies the charge.
November 26: Senior MQM-A leader Farooq
Sattar is arrested after surrendering to the Military Intelligence.
September 9: MQM-A secretary general
Imran Farooq surfaces in London after being in hiding for seven
years and claims his life is in danger in Pakistan.
August 1: Seven MQM-A office-bearers,
including a Member of the National Assembly, and two Members of
the Sindh Provincial Assembly, resign from the "basic membership"
of the party owing to "fundamental differences with MQM chief Altaf
Hussain over policy matters".
July 18: MQM-A announces international
hunger strike and protests inside and outside Pakistan to protest
the "extra-judicial killings" of its cadres.
January 30: Three Urdu newspapers,
Jang, Amn, and Parcham, are charged with sedition
for carrying an MQM-A advertisement seeking donations for "victims
of police excesses" and to compensate those "killed, tortured
or victimised by the police and other security agencies during their
crackdown against the party".
January 24: UK grants political asylum
and residency to MQM-A chairman Altaf Hussain. Pakistan lodges protest.
October 31: Following the MQM-A’s refusal
to meet the Prime Minister’s deadline, Federal rule is imposed in
Sindh and a massive crackdown is launched by security agencies.
October 28: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharief
accuses an MQM-A Member of the Sindh Provincial Assembly (MPA) and
seven other activists of involvement in the murder of Hakim Saeed.
Sharief sets a three-day deadline on the outfit to hand-over the
assassins, failing which he threatens to call -off the alliance.
October 17: Former Sindh Governor Hakim
Mohd Saeed is assassinated by alleged MQM-A terrorists.
September 20: MQM-A decides to resume
support to Pakistan Muslim League at Federal level and in Sindh
without joining the Ministry.
August 26: MQM-A resigns from the ruling
coalition in Sindh province.
August 14: MQM-A Ministers in the Federal
Cabinet resign protesting the government’s failure to protect the
August 12: 10 MQM-A activists are killed
by unidentified gunmen.
June : 140 persons are killed during
various instances of ethnic violence.
April 30: Sindh Chief Minister Liaquat
Jatoi withdraws all cases filed against MQM-A Legislators.
April 18: MQM-A announces the continuation
of the alliance with Pakistan Muslim League in Sindh.
March 21: Six persons, including MQM-H
leader Imtiaz Ahmed Khan and two relatives, are killed by unidentified
gunmen in Karachi.
Federal government asks Sindh
government to furnish details on steps being taken to counter MQM-H
imposed ‘no-go’ areas.
March 19: MQM-A extends ultimatum to
March 17: MQM-A serves a 48-hour ultimatum
on the Sindh Chief Minister to ensure the removal of ‘no-go areas’
in Karachi––areas that are the strongholds of the MQM-H.
February 28: 100 MQM-H members are
arrested in crackdown launched after the February 22- Korangi-attack.
February 22: Eight civilians are killed
outside a mosque at Korangi, Karachi, in MQM factional rivalry.
February 1: Sindh High Court acquits
Altaf Hussain and 18 co-accused in the case of the abduction of
an Army officer.
January 10: Three persons, including
a woman, are killed and five more injured in indiscriminate firing
during MQM factions’ clash.
October 2: Three persons are killed
in factional rivalry in Karachi.
September 27: MQM-H asks the British
government to deport Altaf Hussain from London.
August 14: MQM-A opposes legislation
July 26: MQM-A renames itself as Muttahida
July 9: Three MQM-A workers are arrested
on Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
July 6: Four persons are killed in
MQM-A violence in Karachi.
June 18 : Government invites MQM-A
June 17: Four persons are killed in
factional rivalry in Karachi.
Altaf Hussain asks workers to
close down all the liaison offices of the party.
June 10: 12 persons are killed in wave
of violence in Karachi, allegedly perpetrated by MQM-A activists.
May 4: 70 MQM-H activists are arrested
May 2: 500 MQM-H activists are arrested
April 16: Two MQM-H activists are killed
by MQM-A in Karachi.
April 12: Three MQM-H workers are killed
and another injured in separate attacks by activistrs of the rival
MQM-A in Karachi.
April 1: Sindh government announces
formation of a Compensation Committee to review cases of compensation
for persons and families and their legal heirs affected during the
period October 1993 to November 1997.
February : MQM-A concludes an accord
with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharief and joins the coalition government
at the Federal-level and in Sindh. In the accord, Sharief agrees
to institute a judicial probe into the allegedly deaths of MQM-A
supporters in police custody or encounters or attacks by terrorists;
he also agrees to grant compensation to the families of the deceased.
January 20: MQM-A National Assembly
candidate from Rahim Yar Khan Javed Mazari is arrested along with
January 18: Sindh government grants
parole and releases MQM-A senators Aftab Ahmed Sheikh and Nasreen
October 10: United States Immigration
and Naturalization Services (INS) refuses to grant asylum to three
senior MQM-A leaders, including senior vice chairman Saleem Shahzad.
October 5: Over two dozen MQM activists
are arrested following a series of different encounters in different
places in Karachi.
August 21: Hafiz Osama Qadri, MQM-A
leader and former member of the Sindh Provincial Assembly, is arrested.
June 16: Karachi police arrest MQM-A
cadres Azhar Sayyan––wanted in more than 50 cases––and Naseem Pajama,
wanted in 27 cases.
June 1: Two MQM-A terrorists are arrested
April 12: MQM-A delegation goes to
Geneva for United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) session.
April 10: MQM-A cadre Nadeem Chita,
carrying reward of Rs one million, is arrested from Azizabad, Karachi.
April 9: Four MQM-A cadres, allegedly
involved in 13 cases of murder, six cases of abduction and several
other crimes, are arrested in Multan.
April 2: Shamim Ahmed, MQM-A leader
and Minister in the Sindh government announces the formation of
another MQM faction.
March 5: Two abducted persons are rescued
from MQM-A cadres in Karachi.
February 28: Three MQM-A workers reportedly
confess of a plot to kill religious leaders with the assistance
of a sectarian group.
February 1: MQM-A leader, Ajmal Dehlvi
warns government that the outfit would disrupt World Cup cricket
matches to be held in Pakistan.
Four MQM activists are
arrested in Saudi Arabia.
January 29: MQM-A demands reconstitution
of the government team conducting negotiations with the outfit.
January 17: Federal government
grants Rs. 500 thousand for a proposed library being built by the
Rockets are fired at MQM-H headquarters
in Landhi. MQM-H chief Afaq Khan accuses the rival MQM-A for this
MQM-A lays down new conditions for talks
with the Federal government.
September 8: Five MQM-A activists are
arrested in Karachi.
August 15: Top MQM-A activist Tariq
‘Commando’ is arrested in Karachi.
August 6: Top MQM-A activist Fahim
‘Commando’ and three of his associates are arrested in Karachi.
August 3: In retaliation to the August
2-killing of top MQM-A cadres, 24 persons, including a Sub-divisional
Magistrate, are killed in Karachi.
August 2: Top MQM-A terrorist Farooq
‘Dada’ and three of his associates are killed in Karachi.
July 17: Federal government and MQM-A
agree to refrain from making provocative statements.
July 11: Talks begin between the Federal
government and MQM-A.
July 5, 6, 13 & 24: 10 MQM-A activists
are killed and six more arrested in a series of raids on MQM-A bases
in Karachi. A large cache of arms and ammunition is seized.
July: MQM-A announces weekly strikes
on Friday and Saturday until its demands for more rights are met.
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto responds and says MQM-A’s violence
is aimed at carving out a separate Province for more than eight
million Mohajirs living in Karachi and Hyderabad
June: 10 Sindhi-speaking officials
are killed by alleged MQM-A activists in Karachi.
MQM-A activists attack police and civilian
targets employing guns, rocket and bombs in Karachi.
June 24: A train carrying arms for
SFs is looted and burnt down by MQM-A activists.
June 15: 24 persons, including 10 Sindhis,
are killed in Karachi.
June 4: 10 persons are killed by MQM-A
May 22: MQM-A observes Mourning Day.
May 18: 15 persons are killed in terrorist
attacks in several parts of Karachi.
May 5: US Embassy announces that issuing
visas from Karachi would be stopped because of the prevalence of
terrorist violence in the city.
November 11: Indiscriminate firing
by suspected MQM-A gunmen kills eight persons, including an Air
Force officer in Karachi.
September 26: Three MQM-A activists
are arrested and a large cache of weapons is seized in several raids
on their hideouts in Karachi.
September 17: Eight persons are killed
in indiscriminate firing allegedly by MQM-A gunmen.
August 8: Altaf loyalists in Karachi
allegedly kill a top-MQM-H leader.
July 13: Six persons are killed in
an attack on a bus in Karachi.
June: Altaf Hussain and 19 other MQM
members sentenced in absentia by a Karachi court to 27 years
imprisonment for abducting and torturing an Army intelligence officer,
Major Kaleem, and his four associates in June 1991.
June 28: Suspected MQM-A activists
kill seven police personnel, including an officer who had arrested
several MQM-A gunmen.
June 20: A court in Karachi issues
non-bailable warrants against Altaf Hussain in connection with the
murder of a Senator in May 1990.
June 4: MQM-A releases Charter of Demands.
March 6: Suspected MQM-A activists
kill five security force (SF) personnel, including an Army Captain,
November 27: MQM-A Chairman Azim Tariq
comes over-ground and disowns Altaf Hussain.
July 19: Sindh Chief Minister disassociates
himself from MQM-A.
June 29: MQM-A members resign their
seats in the Federal and Sindh assemblies.
June: MQM dissidents led by Afaq Ahmed
and Aamir Khan formally launch the Haqiqi (real) MQM, subsequently
known by its sobriquet MQM (H).
June 27: MQM-A breaks away from the
ruling alliance at the Federal level.
June 22: Cases are filed against 13
MQM-A leaders, including Altaf Hussain.
June 19: Army is deployed in Karachi
and curfew is declared to prevent factional clashes within MQM.
May 28: Federal government launches
military operation against "dacoits and terrorists" in Sindh.
May 19: The Altaf Hussain faction of
MQM clashes with rebels in the party and a series of killings and
January 1: Altaf Hussain leaves for
London on a self-imposed exile.
October 1: Prominent journalist Mohammad
Salahuddin’s house is bombed allegedly by MQM activists in Karachi
March 3: MQM leader Badar Iqbal is
expelled from the party for financial embezzlement
February 21: Federal government postpones
indefinitely the process of collecting population census.
April 30: Two Japanese students allegedly
abducted by MQM activists for ransom are released after 45 days
February : 14 persons are killed and
26 more inured in separate incidents of violence.
January 3: The Jam Sadiq-led MQM government
in Sindh decides to set up four special courts.
August 22: 27 persons are killed and
55 more injured in firing on MQM camps in Karachi.
July 13: 45 persons are killed in a
bomb blast in Hyderabad.
June 6: President Ishaq Khan proposes
all-party conference on Sindh situation. MQM refuses to participate.
May 9-10: 16 persons are killed in
April 17-30: 11 persons are killed
in Hyderabad violence
April 12: MQM rejects government’s
offer for peace talks.
April 7: Altaf Hussain commences fast-unto-death.
March 31: Karachi University reopens.
February 6-9: 64 persons are killed
during an MQM-organised anti-government demonstration in Karachi.
January 30 –February 3: 18 persons
are killed in anti-government demonstrations in Hyderabad.
December 12-25: 21 persons are killed
in Hyderabad violence and nine others in Karachi.
October 23: MQM unilaterally pulls
out of the Karachi Accord and quits the ruling coalition at the
October 13: Two police officers are
killed, even as Altaf Hussain meets President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
September 22: Sindh Deputy Inspector
General (DIG) of Police says MQM is a terrorist outfit and not a
September 17-19: Nine persons are killed
and 24 others injured during riots in Hyderabad
August 19: 11 persons, including a
police personnel, are killed by alleged MQM gunmen in Karachi
August 13: Seven persons are killed
by suspected MQM gunmen in Karachi.
July 16-23: 10 persons are killed in
violence in Hyderabad.
June 1: Three Federal Ministers meet
MQM leaders in a bid to save Karachi Accord.
May 30: Talks are held between the
then Punjab Chief Minister, Nawaz Sharief and Altaf Hussain for
May 1: Three MQM Ministers resign from
the Sindh provincial government.
April 6: 10 persons are killed and
40 others wounded in incidents of firing in Hyderabad.
March 18: 10 persons are killed and
15 others injured by unidentified gunmen in Karachi.
February 23: Karachi University vice-chancellor’s
office is burnt down by suspected MQM cadres.
December: Benazir Bhutto is elected
Prime Minister with support from the MQM. MQM joins the coalition
government at the Federal level and in Sindh.
November: General Elections held in
Pakistan following Gen. Zia’s death. Benazir Bhutto’s Pakistan Peoples
Party (PPP) concludes a political accord with the MQM, known popularly
as the Karachi Accord, to contest jointly.
October 1: Suspected MQM activists
kill 90 Sindhis in separate attacks in Karachi.
August 30: MQM activists kill a Karachi
July 21: Women MQM activists storm
a Karachi police station and free 18 arrested persons.
July 17: Karachi Mayor Aftab Sheikh
is attacked. Eight persons are killed in riots that followed.
June 18: Six persons are killed in
violence in Hyderabad
April 30- May 9: 31 persons are killed
in Karachi street violence.
March 1: Four persons are killed and
several others injured during violence in Karachi.
February 4: Six persons are killed
in violence in Karachi
January 18: Four persons are killed
in clashes between MQM and PPI activists.
January 10: Five persons are killed
in stabbing and other incidents of violence; several others are
injured in Karachi. The Army is called in.
November: MQM wins a majority of seats
at the local-level elections in Karachi and Hyderabad, and emerges
successful in other urban areas of Sindh.
October 31: Two persons are killed
and 85 others injured in violence during an MQM-strike in Karachi.
Senior police officials are injured in violence in Hyderabad.
September 29: MQM spokesperson says
party regards Khan Abdul Wali Khan and Abdul Ghaffar Khan as the
true representatives of Pukhtoons.
August 30: Altaf Hussain courts arrest
August 28: Sindh government orders
arrest of August 26-rioteers. 160 persons, including leaders of
the PPI, are arrested but Altaf Hussain escapes.
August 26: Nine persons are killed
and 80 others injured in Karachi riots.
July 22 - August 30: 22 persons killed
and 300 others injured in clashes between MQM and a rival group,
Punjabi-Pukhtoon Ittehad (PPI). Besides, five police personnel are
killed and 38 others injured during riots in this period.
June 21: MQM Chairman calls for boycott
of Jang for its "anti-Mohajir policy". The newspaper’s
office in Hyderabad is burnt down.
May 21: One person killed in riots
over the arrest of MQM workers in Karachi.
February 20-21: 16 persons injured
in street violence in Karachi.
January 31: Altaf Hussain says in Liaquatabad
that Mohajirs "will have to arrange for their own security"
December 20: MQM Chairman Azim Ahmad
Tariq demands justice for Mohajirs and advises Pakistan President
Zia-ul Haq to issue arms licenses.
December 14: 50 persons killed in Karachi;
The Army is called-in and curfew declared.
December 9: One person killed and 40
injured during clashes following MQM’s call for strike in Karachi.
November 21: 30 persons injured in
firing in Karachi.
November 18: MQM cadres fire in the
air and disrupt a cricket match at Hyderabad’s Niaz Stadium.
November 3: 10 persons killed in hand-grenade
attacks and six others in street violence in Karachi.
November 2: Altaf Hussain and 10 other
leaders are arrested on charges of attempt to murder and rioting.
72 other activists arrested with arms and explosives in different
areas of Karachi.
October 31: 12 persons killed during
riots in Karachi. Riots spread to Hyderabad where seven persons
October 25: Altaf Hussain says in Hyderabad,
Sindh, that Mohajir youth should "collect arms. If our rights are
not given to us, we will use every kind of force".
August 8: MQM’s first public meeting
at Karachi's Nishtar park is marked by aerial firing, street violence
and damage of public property.