Karachi: Machiavellian Operations | Meghalaya: Flawed Cease-Fire | South Asia Intelligence Review (SAIR), Vol. No. 10.44
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Weekly Assessments & Briefings
Volume 10, No. 44, May 7, 2012

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South Asia Terrorism Portal


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Karachi: Machiavellian Operations
Tushar Ranjan Mohanty
Research Associate, Institute for Conflict Management

Pakistan’s entrenched strategy of playing armed non-state actors against one another, to the progressive detriment of security and stability in the country, was manifested, once again, in efforts to ‘manage’ the rising organised crime-terrorism nexus in the port city of Karachi, the country’s financial capital and the provincial capital of Sindh. Islamabad launched a ‘grand operation’ in the Lyari area of Karachi on May 4, 2012, against the People’s Aman (Peace) Committee (PAC), which, till recently, was in the ‘good books’ of the ruling Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). Continuing their policy of playing one group against another, reports indicate that Security Forces (SFs) were using the rival Arshad Pappu gang in the ‘operation’. An unnamed SF officer, requesting anonymity, admitted that the SFs had sought assistance from Arshad Pappu’s men in identifying the hideouts and suspects. Source indicated that the SFs had decided to ‘hand over’ Lyari to the Arshad Pappu gang after the ‘evacuation’ of PAC operatives. The PAC is allegedly linked to, and supported by, the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and, official sources now claim, the Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA), adding a ‘terrorism’ dimension to what are, in essence, organised crime activities.

The SF operation, which was launched early on April 27, 2012, had already claimed a total of 51 lives by May 5, 2012, including 26 civilians, 12 SF personnel and 13 ‘criminals’. Despite the body count, however, the SFs have failed to make any inroads on the ground, and the gang continues to control its areas of dominance.

Indeed, acknowledging that the SFs had no idea how much resistance they would face, the Inspector General of Sindh Police, Mushtaq Shah nevertheless asserted, on April 30, 2012, that the fight to clear Lyari of ‘criminals’ would take ‘about three days’. As with earlier operations of comparable nature, including the five campaigns (1993-96, 2001, 2005, 2007 and 2011), to divest the city of its burgeoning arsenal of illegal small arms, such projections have proven unrealistic, and the operation entered its eighth day on May 5, 2012, without any sign of imminent success. Meanwhile, Federal Minister of Interior Rehman Malik, on May 5, stated that the Lyari operation has been suspended for 48 hours on ‘humanitarian grounds’. At the time of writing, the operation remained suspended. The PAC appears to have forced a stalemate, in a response involving the massive use of automatic weapons, rockets and grenades.

The PAC currently led by Uzair Jan Baloch, is dominated by members of the Baloch community, and ‘controls’ the Lyari area, where the largest majority is that of the Baloch, followed by the Kutchhis, Sindhis, Punjabis, Pashtuns and Urdu-speaking communities. Another prominent group operating in the area is the Kutchhi Rabita Committee (the Kutchhi Contact Committee, KRC). In early 2003, during President General (Retired) Pervez Musharraf’s regime, Rehman Baloch aka Dakait, the leader of the dominant gang in Lyari, fell out with an associate, Arshad Pappu, over sharing bhatta (protection money) from intercity and goods transporters who passed through the area. Reports also indicate that, in January 2003, Arshad Pappu killed Uzair Baloch’s father, Mama Faizu, in uncertain circumstances. Arshad Pappu then formed a new group and started supporting the KRC. The war between the two gangs started from this point, and it is estimated that around 500 and 600 people were killed between 2003 and 2008.

After the 2008 General Elections, the Rehman Baloch group, backed by the Police, began the process of forcing the Arshad Pappu gang out of Lyari. Arshad Pappu was jailed on several charges, including murder, attempted murder, kidnapping and dealing in narcotics. The PAC was, at that time, patronised by the PPP, and the idea was to give the Rehman Baloch gang dominance in the Lyari area. Significantly, in the midst of this operation, Uzair Baloch, who succeeded Rehman Baloch after the latter’s killing on August 9, 2009, claimed that the PAC was President Asif Ali Zardari’s brainchild, and that the President wanted to ‘control crime’ and start ‘social work’ in Baloch-and Sindhi-dominated areas of Karachi, and that, “the task was given to Rehman Baloch.” Politically, Rehman Baloch was angling for a seat in Parliament, and, consequently, began ‘reforming’ his public image by dabbling in social work, and naming his gang PAC. However, Uzair Baloch alleges, he was killed in 2009, on the instigation of PPP Member of National Assembly (MNA) Nabeel Gabol and other elected Members of the Provincial Assembly (MPAs) of the area. According to Uzair Baloch, crime went down by 70 per cent when Rehman launched his initiative against street crime in Lyari and Malir, and this did not go down well with various elected representatives who were patronising criminals. “Rehman Baloch had to be tackled,” he argued. Significantly, reports claim that the PPP had earlier used PAC as a militant wing to ensure electoral victories and security for the PPP. The PAC has also openly claimed that the PPP armed it to counter the Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM).

Meanwhile, reconfirming the militant-politician nexus, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Chairman Imran Khan on September 11, 2011, declared that political parties were failing to control the anarchy in Karachi because their own militant wings were the ‘root cause’ of the unabated violence. “Name any political party in Karachi that gets votes but doesn’t have a militant wing," Khan demanded, “Militant wings have become a trend now. Our party has made a huge effort to curb internal pressure to establish such a wing.” Similarly, Dr. Zulfiqar Mirza, former Home Minister of the Sindh Province, on August 29, 2011, had claimed that the MQM was a “band of terrorists and criminals”. On April 23, 2012, Rehman Malik, revealed that activists of PPP, MQM, Awami National Party (ANP), and other political formations were involved in extortion in the metropolis.

The ongoing ‘grand operation’ against the PAC was launched as the group had irked the PPP leadership, because, after Rehman’s death, it was felt that the gang’s loyalty to the PPP was uncertain. Moreover, Nabeel Gabol claimed that Lyari had now been established as a PPP stronghold, and PAC's ‘help’ had become redundant. Further, the MQM, now an ally of the PPP both at the Federal and the Provincial levels; KRC, which also supports PPP; and the business community, were increasingly complaining about growing PAC involvement in extortion and abductions. It was, indeed, the killing of KRC leader Abdul Rasheed, on March 18, 2012, by PAC cadres, which resulted in the complete breakdown of a steadily worsening relationship. The KRC claimed that the PAC killed Abdul Rasheed for arranging a successful rally in support of PPP leader Nabeel Gabol.

The TTP has a visible and strong presence in Karachi. However, Sindh Chief Minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah’s and the Police’s allegations regarding a PAC-BLA nexus, without any significant evidence, gives an indication of the intention behind the present ‘grand operation’. Significantly, Baloch nationalist parties, such as the Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Balochistan National Party (BNP), BNP-Awami Asad Baloch, have staged demonstrations in various Districts of Balochistan to protest against what they called the ‘targeted operation’ in Lyari against Baloch people and leaders, who are in majority in the area. The operation, it is alleged, had assumed the shape of an anti-Baloch movement, with BNP Information Secretary Agha Hassan declaring that the Lyari operations were part of the “genocide of the Baloch”. “The excessive use of force against the Baloch, which had started from Balochistan, has now been extended to Karachi,” Agha claimed. Talking about the impending threat, an unnamed local journalist from the Baloch community, noted that the ‘Lyari action’ would create a backlash against the PPP Government, just as the Lal Masjid operation did, against General Musharraf.

Even as the ‘grand operation’ resulted in an escalation in violence in Lyari, the rest of Karachi has witnessed a flare up. The relative calm which had been attained in the last quarter of 2011 [93 fatalities in terrorism related incidents, according to the South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP) database], has been shattered, and the city has recorded at least 185 fatalities in the first quarter of 2012. 202 of fatalities have occurred after April 1, 2012. According to the SATP database, the Sindh Province has witnessed a total of 2,594 fatalities, including 2,170 civilians, 158 SFs and 266 militants, since January 1, 2010. Of these, 2,427 fatalities, including 2,024 civilians, 156 SFs and 247 militants, have been recorded in Karachi alone. 

Meanwhile, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) Chairwoman Zahra Yusuf, in a statement on April 3, 2012, noted that “about 300 people have been the victims of violent shootings in the last three months," in ethnic, sectarian and politically-linked violence in Karachi. "The figures compiled by our staff and the death toll for the last three months confirmed by the Police shows the number of victims of violence was not less than 300," she claimed, adding that the figures include the assassination of 49 political activists.

Federal Minister of the Interior Rehman Malik, on May 3, 2012, asked the people to give the Government ‘one month’ to expose the elements who were involved in terrorism and who were destroying Karachi’s peace, the targeted operation against the Baloch-dominated PAC may, in fact, polarize armed ethnic formations even further, resulting in an escalation that can only be brought to an end through an even-handed effort to end the activities of all armed and organised criminal non-state players in Karachi. The old tactic of patronizing some groups, even as others are actively and violently targeted, can only deepen the ongoing bloodbath in this troubled city.

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Meghalaya: Flawed Cease-Fire
Veronica Khangchian
Research Associate, Institute for Conflict Management

The inherent flaws of the tripartite Cease-fire Agreement (CFA) signed between the Achik National Volunteer Council (ANVC), the State Government and the Government of India (GoI), on July 23, 2004, have now been exposed, with the discovery of a split in the outfit and the surfacing of a Breakaway faction of the ANVC (ANVC-B). This exposure also raises troubling questions regarding CFAs signed with 18 other groups in the northeast as well.

An unnamed ANVC-B leader issued a statement, on March 30, 2012, declaring that some 300 cadres, including ‘officers’, had joined the ANVC-B, and that the “designated ANVC camps are isolated and many cadres have returned to the jungles.”

Subsequently, on April 6, 2012, Nado R. Marak, ‘personal secretary’ to ANVC-B 'commander-in-chief' Mukost Marak, claimed that the split in the ANVC had taken place as far back as in July 2004, when a section of ANVC leaders, including Sohan D. Shira, the current 'commander-in-chief' of the Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA), signed a CFA and came over ground. [Shira deserted an ANVC designated camp on July 24, 2007 and surrendered before the then Chief Minister D.D. Lapang, on August 25, 2007. However, he quickly returned underground, teaming up with ‘chairman’ Champion R. Sangma, to form the GNLA towards the end of 2009.] Nado Marak claimed that, "After disowning the breakaway group, the leaders of the ANVC went on denying the presence of ANVC (Breakaway)… Our group was deliberately left out and not brought under the cease-fire. We continued to stay in the jungle under the command of Mukost Marak, who headed the ‘army wing’. We were waiting for someone to take the initiative and lead us, as we, too, wanted to be a part of the talks.” Meanwhile, it is understood that ANVC-B ‘chairman’ Rimpu Barnard N. Marak had made an effort to include cadres who were left out of the CFA. Referring to Rimpu Marak, Nado noted, “Sir Rimpu (sic) stood for us ever since he visited our camps and took all responsibility to include us in the talks. However, his efforts were halted all the time for reasons best known to the ANVC leaders.”

On April 2, 2012, Nado Marak had stated that the ANVC-B had maintained order and discipline in the hope that the Garos would lead better lives. “However, to our despair, we found out that all our areas of operation were not even included in the territory of the proposed Garoland Autonomous Council (GAC),” he argued, “Also the silence of ANVC leaders against GNLA is another reason, which prompted us to speak out. The leadership should not have isolated the ANVC men who were targeted by the GNLA.”

GNLA, which was declared a terrorist group by the Centre on January 31, 2012, has escalated violence targeting the rank and file of the ANVC, provoking threats that the ANVC would be forced to break the CFA and take up arms to protect itself. Nevertheless, the ANVC-B has blamed the mother organization for being indifferent to GNLA attacks on its cadres, and has attracted a number of ANVC fighters to its fold.

On April 2, 2012, the ANVC-B declared Mukost Marak its ‘Commander-in-Chief’; Rimpu Barnard N. Marak (earlier known as Torik Jangning Marak), the former ‘spokesperson’ of ANVC, its ‘chairman’; and Dilseng its ‘general secretary’. Sources disclosed that Mukost and his cadres were now based in the West Khasi Hills District. The mother organization (ANVC), currently in cease-fire has Dilash R. Marak as the ‘Chairman’ and Jerome Momin as ‘Commander-in-Chief’, and is principally located across the Garo Hills Districts.

The ANVC was involved in significant violence till mid-2004, with its activities peaking in 2002 and 2003. According to South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP) data, the ANVC was involved in 14 incidents (abduction, encounters and ambush) in 2002, 15 incidents in 2003 and seven incidents till mid-2004. While there were no remarkable incidents after the CFA, the ANVC continued to routinely engage in extortion in the West Khasi Hills, East Garo Hills and South Garo Hills Districts. It suffered another split in November 2005, when some of its cadres fled the ‘designated camps’ and formed a new outfit, Achik National Liberation Front (ANLF). The ANLF now appears to be dormant.

Meanwhile, referring to disclosures regarding the ANVC-B, Chief Minister Mukul Sangma, on April 3, 2012, admitted: “There were deficiencies and the ceasefire process was not done properly. It came to the notice of the Government last year (2011) that there is still an armed group which did not come overground." He further explained that several ANVC cadres had skipped the attention of the then Government when the CFA was signed, and the ANVC-B remained at large and was never a part of the talks.

The flawed CFA has been periodically extended, with the latest one-year extension given on October 11, 2011.

The ANVC was formed in 1995, with an original demand for the creation of a ‘Greater Garoland’ [including all the three Districts of the Garo Hills – East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills and South Garo Hills – and Garo-dominated areas of West Khasi Hills, in Meghalaya, as well as Goalpara and Kamrup Districts in Assam]. While signing the CFA in 2004, these demands were scaled down to a demand for the formation of a Garo Autonomous Council (GAC) on the lines of the Bodo Territorial Council (BTC) of Assam, with a massive socio-economic package and autonomy to fulfill the aspirations of the Garo tribals. In its memorandum submitted to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on September 28, 2009, the ANVC, however, made it clear that the demand, if fulfilled, would be different from the existing Garo Hills Autonomous District Council (GHADC), as there would be direct funding from the Centre, and not through the State Government, for the administration of the new autonomous body. Another proposal by the ANVC is that senior government officials would be appointed under the GAC to supervise the administration, and to maintain transparency and accountability. According to the memorandum, the territory of the GAC would comprise the three Districts in the Garo Hills.

Meanwhile, the Government is reportedly taking time to finalise the decision, as the GHADC has been in existence since 1952, under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India. Similarly, the Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council (KHADC), formed on June 27, 1952, and the Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council (JHADC), formed in 1954, to protect the interests of the indigenous people of these areas, have an overlapping jurisdictions with the areas that are being demanded under the GAC. These District Councils have been vested with legislative, executive and judicial functions, as well as financial powers, in the areas under their jurisdiction.

The Meghalaya Government has noted that the creation of the BTC in Assam did not pose any problem, since Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) in Assam existed in just a few Districts. In Meghalaya, State Chief Secretary W.M.S. Pariat notes, “the present District Councils in the state, including the GHADC, cover the whole of Meghalaya, and the State Government is finding it tough to create another similar body, as demanded by the ANVC.” Chief Minister Sangma on April 2, 2012, justifying delays in the creation of the GAC, argued, “There is overlapping of powers and functions in the proposed council by the ANVC, GHADC and the State Government. We have to go through all these aspects before finalising a mechanism, which can be acceptable to ANVC.”

Continuing delays on the formation of the GAC have also resulted in the exodus of cadres from the ANVC to the ANVC-B.

Adding to the ANVC’s woes, a December 21, 2011, news report suggested that at least 180 ANVC militants had not been receiving their allowance of INR 3,000 each per month for the preceding six months, even though the Centre had released the amount to the State Government.

With the rising exodus of cadres to the ANVC-B, the breakaway faction is emerging as a potential threat to peace. An ANVC-B leader recently declared, “Mukost and his group has not fired a single bullet to the security personnel or to anyone since the truce was signed (sic). Our separate peace overtures with the Government should not be looked as a sign of weakness by others.” Reports indicate that ANVC-B ‘chairman’ Rimpu Bernard N. Marak has been acquiring new weapons. On January 24, 2012, one Biloo Marak, reportedly sent by Rimpu Bernard Marak, was arrested, along with two AK-47s, at Dudhnoi in Goalpara District (Assam). Significantly, the present ‘commander-in-chief’ of ANVC-B had allegedly killed four coal mine workers in Nangalbibra (South Garo Hills) on November 17, 2010.

Nado R. Marak, on April 6, 2012, further asserted, “The group will still aspire for a greater Garoland and we would like to come to a separate truce with the Government." These postures will certainly undermine the utility of the CFA with the ANVC.

The security scenario in Meghalaya had improved considerably, with fatalities recording steep declines prior to the formation of the GNLA in 2009. Since this event, however, the situation has begun to deteriorate. According to the SATP database, insurgency-related fatalities increased to 29 in 2011 (in 13 incidents of killing) as compared to 20 in 2010 (in 11 incidents of killing), and just five in 2009. The State has already recorded 18 fatalities in the current year – including 11 civilians and seven militants – in 14 incidents, all but one relating to GNLA (till May 6, 2012).

The State Government, on April 9, 2012, announced that it was ready to hold talks with the ANVC-B and to explore whether the group should be brought under the ambit of the previous tripartite peace agreement, or a separate pact. With both the factions sticking to a divergent agenda, and the GNLA on a rampage, the peace process, based on a flawed CFA, is certainly in jeopardy.


Weekly Fatalities: Major Conflicts in South Asia
April 30-May 6, 2012



Security Force Personnel







Jammu and Kashmir


Left-wing Extremism








Total (INDIA)










Khyber Pakhtunkhwa





Provisional data compiled from English language media sources.


LeT terror strike alert in four States: A Central Intelligence Bureau alert has warned of a possible Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) orchestrated terror strike in four states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Haryana. According to intelligence alert, LeT has already conducted recce and could carry out terror attacks soon. Times of India, May 5, 2012.

UK urges Pakistan to end "all external support" for violence in Jammu and Kashmir: UK on April 30 asked Pakistan to end "all external support" for violence in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). In its annual report on the issue of human rights, titled 'Human Rights and Democracy', the UK Foreign Office said: "We called for an end to all external support for violence in Kashmir. We continue to urge the Government of Pakistan to take action against the presence and activities of militant groups in Pakistan-administered Kashmir". Daily Excelsior, May 1, 2012.

'Guerrilla zone' in south India ready, claims report: The Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist) is getting ready to declare a guerrilla zone in south India. It includes the tribal areas in the Western Ghats in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The group has already alerted its over-ground cadre in these States of the possible 'police repression' in the event of a sensational action that would mark the declaration of the guerrilla zone. Times of India, May 7, 2012.

MHA name five SIMI front organisations: The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) on April 30 named Maharashtra based Khair-e-Ummat Trust as one of the fronts/pseudonymous organisations of Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). The MHA's "background note on the Student Islamic Movement of India (SIMI)," mentions four more organisations as being SIMI 'fronts' at the national level Tehreek-e-Ehyaa-e-Ummat (TEU), Tehreek-Talaba-e-Arabia (TTA), Tehrik Tahaffuz-e-Shaaire Islam (TTSI) and Wahdat-e-Islami. The MHA has not banned these groups. The Hindu, May 1, 2012.

Air route being used to smuggle FICN into India, says report: Fake Indian Currency Note (FICN) racketeers operating from abroad are using air route in addition to the Pakistan-Nepal-Bangladesh-West Bengal land route to smuggle FICN to India. According to intelligence officials, migrant labourers from Andhra Pradesh flying to Gulf countries for work are being used for smuggling Pakistan-printed FICN into Hyderabad. The Hindu, May 2, 2012.

Centre to fund 20 more Districts to fight Maoist violence: Another 20 Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist) affected Districts will get additional central fund from the Union Home Ministry under Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme that aims to build Police capacity to fight the CPI-Maoist. Though these 20 Districts are least affected by Maoist violence, the Ministry has recently included them in the list -- expanding it from 83 to 103 -- to develop them as 'buffer' between severely Maoist affected Districts and those that are unaffected by their presence. Times of India, May 2, 2012.

Union Government plans hostage policy for Maoists: The Union Government is planning to seek the cooperation of States in formulating a national policy to deal with hostage crisis in the backdrop of Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist) taking hostages in Odisha and Chhattisgarh and Chief Minister Raman Singh demanding such a policy. The Union Home Ministry is planning to write all States to put forward their views on formulating a hostage policy and Standard Operating Procedures to deal with any hostage situation. Business Standard, May 5, 2012.


New cabinet formed in Nepal: Eleven ministers from different major political parties were sworn in the night of May 5 as new Cabinet was formed. Ministers from Nepali Congress (NC), United Democratic Madhesi Front (UDMF) and Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-M) were sworn in. Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist Leninist (CPN-UML) has not yet recommended any names for the ministers. The new Government is formed after dissolving the previous cabinet as per a five-point agreement reached amongst the parties to form a national consensus Government under Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai. ANI, May 6, 2012.

700 former PLA combatants refuse to join Nepal Army: Some 700 former People Liberation Army (PLA) combatants who had opted for the integration into the Nepal Army (NA) during the second phase of regrouping have asked the Army Integration Special Committee (AISC) to send them into voluntary retirement. It has been learnt that the combatants are urging the AISC to re-open the option of voluntary retirement for them. Hindustan Times, May 2, 2012.


39 civilians and 19 SFs among 67 persons killed during the week in FATA: Nine soldiers were killed and 12 more injured when unidentified militants ambushed a military convoy at Amin Checkpost, a security outpost on a hilltop outside Miranshah, in North Waziristan Agency (NWA) of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) on May 6.

Eight militants were killed in Mamozai and Khadizai areas of Orakzai Agency.

At least 10 persons were killed while one was injured when US drone attacked a house in Darr-e-Nishtar area of NWA early in the morning of May 5.

A suicide attack targeting Security Forces (SFs) on May 4 killed at least 29 persons, including seven Policemen, and injured over 72 others at Khar Bazaar in Khar town of Bajaur Agency.

Three persons were killed due to shelling of SFs in the Khan Mir Garhi area of Mamonzai in Orakzai Agency on May 1. Dawn; Daily Times; The News; Tribune, May 1-7, 2012.

27 civilians and nine SF among 44 persons killed during the week in Sindh: At least seven people, including a Pakistan People's Party (PPP) activist's son, were killed in a recent spate of target killings in Karachi on May 5.

Three people, including a Police Officer and a political activist, were killed in separate incidents of target killing in Karachi on May 4.

At least five Policemen and four criminals were killed in a gun battle between the Police and gangsters on the seventh day of operation in Lyari area of Karachi on May 3.

At least six people were killed and more than 40 wounded on the sixth day of the ongoing gun battle between Police and gangsters in Lyari area of Karachi on May 2.

At least eight people, including a Police Official, were killed and another 35 injured in the ongoing Police operation against gangsters in Lyari area of Karachi on April 30. Dawn; Daily Times; The News; Tribune, May 1-7, 2012.

Abductions and extra-judicial killings on the rise in Balochistan, claims Baloch BRP press release: Baloch Republican Party (BRP) press release on May 5 read that the random abductions and extra-judicial killings of the Baloch are on the rise in Balochistan. The release said on one hand, Pakistani officials and the Supreme Court claimed that they were making efforts to recover Baloch missing persons and to stop the dumping of decomposed bodies, on the other hand, Security Forces continued to abduct torture and extra-judicially kill them. Dawn, April 6, 2012.

Pakistan second most dangerous country for journalists, says UNESCO: A report released by UNESCO ranks Pakistan as the second-most dangerous country for journalists in 2010-2011. Mexico was the most dangerous, with 18 journalist fatalities in that time frame. Two Pakistani journalists were killed in 2006-2007, followed by six in 2008-2009 and 16 in 2010-2011, the report, "The Safety of Journalists and the Danger of Impunity," found. Forty-two journalists have been killed in Pakistan since 1992, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists. Dawn, May 4, 2012.

Growing incidents of clashes reported in militant training camps in PoK: There have been a number of clashes reported as some Kashmiri militants in training camps in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) have wished to return to India. There are growing incidents of clashes between militants wanting to return to Jammu and Kashmir from training camps in PoK and those wanting to stay on, intelligence sources say. "Recently two Kashmiri militants desirous of returning home from the Bagh training camp opposite Uri sector of the Kashmir Valley got killed in clashes with those who wanted to stay put," an unnamed source said. The News, May 4, 2012.

Pakistan continues to support insurgent groups in Afghanistan, says Pentagon: Pakistan continues to support insurgent groups and provide terrorist safe havens so as to have its influence inside the war-torn Afghanistan, the Pentagon told the United States (US) Congress. "… To this end, Pakistan has allowed an insurgent sanctuary in its border to persist, offering a safe haven to Afghan Taliban and associated militant groups including the Haqqani Taliban Network in the North Waziristan Agency," it said. Times of India, May 2, 2012.

Farman Ali Shinwari named new al Qaeda chief in Pakistan: Al Qaeda named Farman Ali Shinwari (30) who belongs to Khugakhel sub-tribe of Shinwaris, and hails from Landikotal subdivision of Khyber Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), as its head in Pakistan. The statement issued by al Qaeda's Dawa Wing said that after consultations and approval of top al Qaeda leadership, Farman Shinwari was selected as head of the network in Pakistan. The News, May 1, 2012.

Al Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri is in Pakistan's tribal area, says US official: Ayman al-Zawahiri, the Chief of al Qaeda, remains at large in Pakistan's tribal area, said United States (US) Counter-Terrorism Official John Brennan on April 30 as Washington vowed to hunt him down. He said, "We believe he (Zawahiri) is in that region of the world, as well as other al Qaeda leaders that continue to borough into areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan," adding, "We're not going to relent until they're brought to justice one way or the other." Indian Express, May 1, 2012.


428 LTTE schools in Europe, says defence intelligence report: According to a May 5 Lankadeepa report, Sri Lanka Defence intelligence has found that the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) operates 428 schools in the main countries of Europe. These school functions in Germany, Switzerland, France, Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and provide education to 22,500 students across the Europe. Germany has the highest number of such schools with 145 and there are 133 schools in Switzerland, and 65 schools in Denmark. Sri Lanka's defense authorities have complained to the authorities of such countries. Colombopage, May 5, 2012

Court orders Sarath Fonseka transfer to NHC over LTTE threat: Colombo High Court on May 3 ordered the Prison Commissioner to transfer Sarath Fonseka to the Colombo National Hospital (NHC) from the private hospital where he is receiving treatment for security reasons. The court observing the fact that there is a threat to Fonseka from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other organisations and the prison authorities are unable to provide maximum security for Fonseka while at the private hospital, ordered his transfer to NHC. Daily News, May 5, 2012.

Anti-state conspiracies, uprisings or rebellions have no place in Sri Lanka', says President Mahindra Rajapaksa: President Mahindra Rajapaksa on May 1 said that anti-state conspiracies, uprisings or rebellions have no place in Sri Lanka. He said that people from foreign countries without name or address come to Sri Lanka to destabilize the country with their anti-national campaigns. Stating that some countries, unfortunately, assist them in the hope of a regime change, he stressed that a regime change would be possible only by the people for the people of this country through free and fair elections and not by conspiracies hatched with the assistance of foreign powers. Dailymirror, May 2, 2012.

The South Asia Intelligence Review (SAIR) is a weekly service that brings you regular data, assessments and news briefs on terrorism, insurgencies and sub-conventional warfare, on counter-terrorism responses and policies, as well as on related economic, political, and social issues, in the South Asian region.

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